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Antioxidants 2016, 5(3), 25;

The Role of Copper Chaperone Atox1 in Coupling Redox Homeostasis to Intracellular Copper Distribution

Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women’s University, Hiroshima 731-0153, Japan
Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ananda S. Prasad and Bin Bao
Received: 24 May 2016 / Revised: 13 July 2016 / Accepted: 22 July 2016 / Published: 27 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Metals Metabolism)
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Human antioxidant protein 1 (Atox1) is a small cytosolic protein with an essential role in copper homeostasis. Atox1 functions as a copper carrier facilitating copper transfer to the secretory pathway. This process is required for activation of copper dependent enzymes involved in neurotransmitter biosynthesis, iron efflux, neovascularization, wound healing, and regulation of blood pressure. Recently, new cellular roles for Atox1 have emerged. Changing levels of Atox1 were shown to modulate response to cancer therapies, contribute to inflammatory response, and protect cells against various oxidative stresses. It has also become apparent that the activity of Atox1 is tightly linked to the cellular redox status. In this review, we summarize biochemical information related to a dual role of Atox1 as a copper chaperone and an antioxidant. We discuss how these two activities could be linked and contribute to establishing the intracellular copper balance and functional identity of cells during differentiation. View Full-Text
Keywords: copper; heavy metal; glutathione; Atox1; copper chaperone copper; heavy metal; glutathione; Atox1; copper chaperone

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Hatori, Y.; Lutsenko, S. The Role of Copper Chaperone Atox1 in Coupling Redox Homeostasis to Intracellular Copper Distribution. Antioxidants 2016, 5, 25.

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