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Oxidative Stress and the Use of Antioxidants in Stroke

Institute of Cardiovascular & Medical Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary & Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, BHF GCRC, 126 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Antioxidants 2014, 3(3), 472-501;
Received: 24 February 2014 / Revised: 8 May 2014 / Accepted: 14 May 2014 / Published: 3 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Neuroinflammation)
Transient or permanent interruption of cerebral blood flow by occlusion of a cerebral artery gives rise to an ischaemic stroke leading to irreversible damage or dysfunction to the cells within the affected tissue along with permanent or reversible neurological deficit. Extensive research has identified excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death as key contributory pathways underlying lesion progression. The cornerstone of treatment for acute ischaemic stroke remains reperfusion therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). The downstream sequelae of events resulting from spontaneous or pharmacological reperfusion lead to an imbalance in the production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) over endogenous anti-oxidant protection strategies. As such, anti-oxidant therapy has long been investigated as a means to reduce the extent of injury resulting from ischaemic stroke with varying degrees of success. Here we discuss the production and source of these ROS and the various strategies employed to modulate levels. These strategies broadly attempt to inhibit ROS production or increase scavenging or degradation of ROS. While early clinical studies have failed to translate success from bench to bedside, the combination of anti-oxidants with existing thrombolytics or novel neuroprotectants may represent an avenue worthy of clinical investigation. Clearly, there is a pressing need to identify new therapeutic alternatives for the vast majority of patients who are not eligible to receive rt-PA for this debilitating and devastating disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-oxidant; stroke; oxidative stress anti-oxidant; stroke; oxidative stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shirley, R.; Ord, E.N.J.; Work, L.M. Oxidative Stress and the Use of Antioxidants in Stroke. Antioxidants 2014, 3, 472-501.

AMA Style

Shirley R, Ord ENJ, Work LM. Oxidative Stress and the Use of Antioxidants in Stroke. Antioxidants. 2014; 3(3):472-501.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shirley, Rachel, Emily N. J. Ord, and Lorraine M. Work. 2014. "Oxidative Stress and the Use of Antioxidants in Stroke" Antioxidants 3, no. 3: 472-501.

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