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Communication

Reactive Species from Two-Signal Activated Macrophages Interfere with Their Oxygen Consumption Measurements

1
Tumor Immunology Lab, Department of Pathology, Rikshospitalet, Oslo University Hospital and University of Oslo, 0424 Oslo, Norway
2
Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, 0379 Oslo, Norway
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Reto Asmis
Antioxidants 2021, 10(7), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10071149
Received: 10 June 2021 / Revised: 15 July 2021 / Accepted: 16 July 2021 / Published: 20 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section ROS, RNS and RSS)
Metabolic modulation of macrophage activation has emerged as a promising strategy lately in immunotherapeutics. However, macrophages have a broad spectrum of functions and thus, understanding the exact metabolic changes that drive a particular immune response, is of major importance. In our previous work, we have reported a key role of nitric oxide (NO) in two(2)-signal activated macrophages [M(2-signals)]. Further characterization using metabolic analysis in intact cells, showed that the basal and maximal respiration levels of M(2-signals) were comparable, with cells being unresponsive to the injections-inducd mitochondrial stress. Here, we show that excessive NO secretion by the M(2-signals) macrophages, interferes with the oxygen (O2) consumption measurements on cells using the seahorse metabolic analyzer. This is attributed mainly to the consumption of ambient oxygen by NO to form NO2 and/or NO3 but also to the reduction of O2 to superoxide anion (O2●−) by stray electrons from the electron transport chain, leading to the formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO). We found that reactive species-donors in the absence of cells, produce comparable oxygen consumption rates (OCR) with M(2-signals) macrophages. Furthermore, inhibition of NO production, partly recovered the respiration of activated macrophages, while external addition of NO in non-activated macrophages downregulated their OCR levels. Our findings are crucial for the accurate metabolic characterization of cells, especially in cases where reactive nitrogen or oxygen species are produced in excess. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitric oxide (NO); superoxide anion (O2●−); classically activated macrophages (M1); reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS); respiration; oxygen consumption nitric oxide (NO); superoxide anion (O2●−); classically activated macrophages (M1); reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS); respiration; oxygen consumption
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MDPI and ACS Style

Christopoulos, P.F.; Grigalavicius, M.; Corthay, A.; Berg, K.; Theodossiou, T.A. Reactive Species from Two-Signal Activated Macrophages Interfere with Their Oxygen Consumption Measurements. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 1149. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10071149

AMA Style

Christopoulos PF, Grigalavicius M, Corthay A, Berg K, Theodossiou TA. Reactive Species from Two-Signal Activated Macrophages Interfere with Their Oxygen Consumption Measurements. Antioxidants. 2021; 10(7):1149. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10071149

Chicago/Turabian Style

Christopoulos, Panagiotis F., Mantas Grigalavicius, Alexandre Corthay, Kristian Berg, and Theodossis A. Theodossiou. 2021. "Reactive Species from Two-Signal Activated Macrophages Interfere with Their Oxygen Consumption Measurements" Antioxidants 10, no. 7: 1149. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10071149

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