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Cognitive Decline Secondary to Therapeutic Brain Radiation—Similarities and Differences to Traumatic Brain Injury

1
University of Wisconsin Hospital, Madison, WI 53726; USA
2
Golden Gate Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA 94107, USA
3
Dell Medical School, The University of Texas Austin, Austin, TX 78701, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(5), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9050097
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 27 April 2019
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PDF [239 KB, uploaded 27 April 2019]
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Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting from forceful impacts on the torso and head has been of major interest because of the prevalence of such injuries in military personnel, contact sports and the elderly. Cognitive and behavioral changes associated with TBI are also seen following whole brain radiation treatment for cancer and chemotherapy for disseminated tumors. The biological mechanisms involved in the initiation of TBI from impact, radiation, and chemotherapy to loss of cognitive function have several shared characteristics including increases in blood brain barrier permeability, blood vessel density, increases in inflammatory and autoimmune responses, alterations in NMDA and glutamate receptor levels and release of proteins normally sequestered in the brain into the blood and spinal fluid. The development of therapeutic agents that mitigate the loss of cognition and development of behavioral disorders in patients experiencing radiation-induced injury may provide benefit to those with TBI when similar processes are involved on a cellular or molecular level. Increased collaborative efforts between the radiation oncology and the neurology and psychiatry communities may be of major benefit for the management of brain injury from varied environmental insults. View Full-Text
Keywords: radiation induced brain injury; traumatic brain injury; cognitive loss; inflammatory response; immune factors; receptor changes; blood brain barrier radiation induced brain injury; traumatic brain injury; cognitive loss; inflammatory response; immune factors; receptor changes; blood brain barrier
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Huang, A.J.; Kornguth, D.; Kornguth, S. Cognitive Decline Secondary to Therapeutic Brain Radiation—Similarities and Differences to Traumatic Brain Injury. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 97.

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