Next Article in Journal
Genes, Gender, Environment, and Novel Functions of Estrogen Receptor Beta in the Susceptibility to Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Next Article in Special Issue
Insomnia and Personality—A Network Approach
Previous Article in Journal
Physical Activity: A Viable Way to Reduce the Risks of Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Vascular Dementia in Older Adults
Previous Article in Special Issue
Group vs. Individual Treatment for Acute Insomnia: A Pilot Study Evaluating a “One-Shot” Treatment Strategy
Open AccessReview

Hyperarousal and Beyond: New Insights to the Pathophysiology of Insomnia Disorder through Functional Neuroimaging Studies

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84604, USA
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Célyne H. Bastien
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(3), 23;
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research in Insomnia)
Neuroimaging studies have produced seemingly contradictory findings in regards to the pathophysiology of insomnia. Although most study results are interpreted from the perspective of a “hyperarousal” model, the aggregate findings from neuroimaging studies suggest a more complex model is needed. We provide a review of the major findings from neuroimaging studies, then discuss them in relation to a heuristic model of sleep-wake states that involves three major factors: wake drive, sleep drive, and level of conscious awareness. We propose that insomnia involves dysregulation in these factors, resulting in subtle dysregulation of sleep-wake states throughout the 24 h light/dark cycle. View Full-Text
Keywords: insomnia; neuroimaging; heuristic model; hyperarousal insomnia; neuroimaging; heuristic model; hyperarousal
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kay, D.B.; Buysse, D.J. Hyperarousal and Beyond: New Insights to the Pathophysiology of Insomnia Disorder through Functional Neuroimaging Studies. Brain Sci. 2017, 7, 23.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop