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Hyperarousal and Beyond: New Insights to the Pathophysiology of Insomnia Disorder through Functional Neuroimaging Studies

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84604, USA
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Célyne H. Bastien
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(3), 23;
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research in Insomnia)
PDF [1292 KB, uploaded 23 February 2017]
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Neuroimaging studies have produced seemingly contradictory findings in regards to the pathophysiology of insomnia. Although most study results are interpreted from the perspective of a “hyperarousal” model, the aggregate findings from neuroimaging studies suggest a more complex model is needed. We provide a review of the major findings from neuroimaging studies, then discuss them in relation to a heuristic model of sleep-wake states that involves three major factors: wake drive, sleep drive, and level of conscious awareness. We propose that insomnia involves dysregulation in these factors, resulting in subtle dysregulation of sleep-wake states throughout the 24 h light/dark cycle. View Full-Text
Keywords: insomnia; neuroimaging; heuristic model; hyperarousal insomnia; neuroimaging; heuristic model; hyperarousal

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Kay, D.B.; Buysse, D.J. Hyperarousal and Beyond: New Insights to the Pathophysiology of Insomnia Disorder through Functional Neuroimaging Studies. Brain Sci. 2017, 7, 23.

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