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Brain Sci. 2016, 6(4), 41;

Immunomodulators as Therapeutic Agents in Mitigating the Progression of Parkinson’s Disease

Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
Byrd Alzheimer’s Institute, Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33613, USA
James A Haley VA Hospital, 13000 Bruce B Downs Blvd, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Donna Gruol
Received: 9 July 2016 / Revised: 6 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 23 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Neuroimmunology)
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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that primarily afflicts the elderly. It is characterized by motor dysfunction due to extensive neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta. There are multiple biological processes that are negatively impacted during the pathogenesis of PD, and are implicated in the cell death in this region. Neuroinflammation is evidently involved in PD pathology and mitigating the inflammatory cascade has been a therapeutic strategy. Age is the number one risk factor for PD and thus needs to be considered in the context of disease pathology. Here, we discuss the role of neuroinflammation within the context of aging as it applies to the development of PD, and the potential for two representative compounds, fractalkine and astaxanthin, to attenuate the pathophysiology that modulates neurodegeneration that occurs in Parkinson’s disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; neuroinflammation; microglia; fractalkine; astaxanthin Parkinson’s disease; neuroinflammation; microglia; fractalkine; astaxanthin

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Grimmig, B.; Morganti, J.; Nash, K.; Bickford, P.C. Immunomodulators as Therapeutic Agents in Mitigating the Progression of Parkinson’s Disease. Brain Sci. 2016, 6, 41.

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