Next Article in Journal
A Scientometric Approach to Review the Role of the Medial Preoptic Area (MPOA) in Parental Behavior
Next Article in Special Issue
Neuropsychological Evaluations in Limbic Encephalitis
Previous Article in Journal
Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Oxidative Stress-Related Genes and the Risk of a Stroke in a Polish Population—A Preliminary Study
Review

Prevalence of Neural Autoantibodies in Epilepsy of Unknown Etiology: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga-IBIMA, 29010 Málaga, Spain
2
Unidad de Gestión Clínica de Neurociencias, Hospital Regional Universitario de Málaga, 29010 Málaga, Spain
3
Unidad de Gestión Clínica de Reumatología, Hospital Regional Universitario de Málaga, 29010 Málaga, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giovanni Assenza
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(3), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11030392
Received: 6 February 2021 / Revised: 13 March 2021 / Accepted: 16 March 2021 / Published: 19 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Immune System, Neuroinflammation and Epilepsy)
Background: The prevalence of neural autoantibodies in epilepsy of unknown etiology varies among studies. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the pooled global prevalence and the prevalence for each antibody. Methods: A systematic search was conducted for studies that included prospectively patients ≥16 years old with epilepsy of unknown etiology and systematically determined neural autoantibodies. A meta-analysis was undertaken to estimate pooled prevalence in total patients with a positive result for at least one neural autoantibody in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and for each autoantibody. Results: Ten of the eleven studies that met the inclusion criteria and a total of 1302 patients with epilepsy of unknown etiology were included in themeta-analysis. The global pooled prevalence (IC95%) was 7.6% (4.6–11.2) in a total of 82 patients with a positive result for any neural autoantibody. None of the controls available in the studies had a positive result. Individual pooled prevalence for each autoantibody was: glycine receptor (GlyR) (3.2%), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) (1.9%), N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) (1.8%), leucine-rich glioma inactivated-1 protein (LGI1) (1.1%), contactin-2-associated protein (CASPR2) (0.6%) and onconeuronal (0.2%). Conclusions: The pooled prevalence of neural autoantibodies in patients with epilepsy of unknown etiology is small but not irrelevant. None of the controls had a positive result. There was high heterogeneity among studies. In the future, a homogeneous protocol for testing neural autoantibodies is recommended. View Full-Text
Keywords: epilepsy; autoimmune epilepsy; antibodies; autoantibodies; neural autoantibodies; prevalence epilepsy; autoimmune epilepsy; antibodies; autoantibodies; neural autoantibodies; prevalence
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Cabezudo-García, P.; Mena-Vázquez, N.; Ciano-Petersen, N.L.; García-Martín, G.; Estivill-Torrús, G.; Serrano-Castro, P.J. Prevalence of Neural Autoantibodies in Epilepsy of Unknown Etiology: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 392. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11030392

AMA Style

Cabezudo-García P, Mena-Vázquez N, Ciano-Petersen NL, García-Martín G, Estivill-Torrús G, Serrano-Castro PJ. Prevalence of Neural Autoantibodies in Epilepsy of Unknown Etiology: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Brain Sciences. 2021; 11(3):392. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11030392

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cabezudo-García, Pablo, Natalia Mena-Vázquez, Nicolás L. Ciano-Petersen, Guillermina García-Martín, Guillermo Estivill-Torrús, and Pedro J. Serrano-Castro 2021. "Prevalence of Neural Autoantibodies in Epilepsy of Unknown Etiology: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Brain Sciences 11, no. 3: 392. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11030392

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop