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Geosciences 2018, 8(7), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8070228

One-Dimensional Nonlinear Seismic Response Analysis Using Strength-Controlled Constitutive Models: The Case of the Leaning Tower of Pisa’s Subsoil

1
Department of Architecture, Roma Tre University, 00153 Rome, Italy
2
College of Civil Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, China
3
Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, University of Pisa, 56122 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
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Abstract

The Leaning Tower of Pisa was built between 1173 and 1360 and began to lean at the beginning of its construction. Extensive investigations to reveal the causes of the tilting only began in the early 20th century. Although few earthquakes have been recorded, there is a renewed interest in the seismic behavior of the tower triggered by the availability of new data and technologies. This paper highlights the influence of using new strength-controlled constitutive models in case of 1D nonlinear response analysis. This is an aspect that has been poorly investigated. Most of the computer codes currently available for nonlinear seismic response analysis (SRA) of soil use constitutive models able to capture small-strain behavior, but the large-strain shear strength is left uncontrolled. This can significantly affect the assessment of a 1-D response analysis and the Leaning Tower’s subsoil can be useful for this study as it represents a well-documented and well-characterized site. After a geological and geotechnical description of the subsoil profile and a synthesis of available data, the seismic input is defined. One-dimensional SRAs were carried out by means of a computer code which considers an equivalent-linear soil modelling and two codes which assume nonlinear soil response and permit to use strength-controlled constitutive models. All the parameters were calibrated on the basis of the same soil data, therefore allowing for a direct comparison of the results. View Full-Text
Keywords: leaning tower; seismic response analysis; seismic input; strength-controlled models leaning tower; seismic response analysis; seismic input; strength-controlled models
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Fiorentino, G.; Nuti, C.; Squeglia, N.; Lavorato, D.; Stacul, S. One-Dimensional Nonlinear Seismic Response Analysis Using Strength-Controlled Constitutive Models: The Case of the Leaning Tower of Pisa’s Subsoil. Geosciences 2018, 8, 228.

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