A lack of closely spaced datasets on layer elevations, aquifer parameters, identification of areas with high recharge potential, dominant conduit porosity zones, and well defined boundary conditions hampers the ability of groundwater models to produce a reliable water balance. Typically, geological structure, aquifer properties, and groundwater heads are obtained from point measurements which are sparse. The drillhole information in aquifers is usually available at locations far apart, distances ranging from hundreds to thousands of meters. Furthermore, pump tests are usually conducted at limited locations and generalized to the aquifer. This limited knowledge leads to errors in the conceptual understanding of the aquifer. In this study, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey (AEM) was used to define base elevations of the aquifers where drillhole information was lacking. Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (sNMR), borehole NMR, Transient Electromagnetic (TEM), and downhole geophysical surveys have given new insight to the conceptualization of hydrogeological framework. These methods are relatively low in cost compared to traditional well drilling and provide information on layer elevations, aquifer parameters, point and diffuse recharge zones, and conduit porosity zones in the profile, which improves our definition of the boundary conditions. From a practical point of view, combining drillhole information with a variety of geophysical techniques provides sound datasets to develop a comprehensive conceptual model. This in turn can be used to build a robust groundwater model.
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