Next Article in Journal
Multi-Analytical Approach for Identifying Asbestos Minerals In Situ
Previous Article in Journal
Twinning Strains in Synfolding Calcite, Proterozoic Sinian System, China
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Determining Earthquake Susceptible Areas Southeast of Yogyakarta, Indonesia—Outcrop Analysis from Structure from Motion (SfM) and Geographic Information System (GIS)

Department of Geography, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
Geography Faculty, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta 57162, Central Java, Indonesia
Research Centre of Volcanic Risk at Sea, Faculty of Maritime Sciences, University of Kobe, Kobe 658-0022, Japan
Department of Environmental Geography, Geography Faculty, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2018, 8(4), 132;
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
PDF [13218 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]


Located approximately a hundred kilometres north of Java Subduction Zone, Java Island has a complicated geology and geomorphology. The north zone is dominated by the folded area, the centre is dominated by the active volcanic arc and the south of Java including the study area (Southeast part of Yogyakarta City), is dominated by the uplifted southern mountain. In general, the study area is part of the Bantul’s Graben. In the middle part of study area flows the Opak River, which is often associated with normal faults of Opak Fault. The Opak Fault is such a complex fault system which has a complex local fault which can cause worst local site effect when earthquakes occur. However, the geology map of Yogyakarta is the only data that gives the characteristics of Opak Fault roughly. Thus, the effort to identify unchartered fault system needs to be done. The aims of this study are to conduct the outcrop study, to identify the micro faults and to improve the understanding of faults system to support the earthquake hazard and risk assessment. The integrated method of remote sensing, structure from motion (SfM), geographic information system (GIS) and direct outcrop observation was conducted in the study area. Remote sensing was applied to recognize the outcrop location and to extract the nature lineament feature which can be used as fault indicator. The structure from motion was used to support characterising the outcrop in the field, to identify the fault evidence, and to measure the fault displacement on the outcrops. The direct outcrop observation is very useful to reveal the lithofacies characteristics and to reconstruct the lithostratigraphic correlation among the outcrops. Meanwhile, GIS was used to analyse all the data from remote sensing, SfM, and direct outcrop observation. The main findings of this study were as follows: the middle part of study area has the most complicated geologic structure. At least 56 faults evidence with the maximum displacement of 2.39 m was found on the study area. Administratively, the north part of Segoroyoso Village, the middle part of Wonolelo Village, and the middle part of Bawuran village are very unstable and vulnerable to the ground motion amplification due to their faults configuration. The further studies such as geo-electric survey, boreholes survey, and detail geological mapping still need to be conducted in the study area to get better understanding of Opak Fault. Additionally, the carbon testing of charcoal that found in the outcrop and identification of exact location of the ancient eruption source also need to be done. View Full-Text
Keywords: outcrop study; structure from motion; fault displacement; GIS outcrop study; structure from motion; fault displacement; GIS

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Saputra, A.; Gomez, C.; Delikostidis, I.; Zawar-Reza, P.; Hadmoko, D.S.; Sartohadi, J.; Setiawan, M.A. Determining Earthquake Susceptible Areas Southeast of Yogyakarta, Indonesia—Outcrop Analysis from Structure from Motion (SfM) and Geographic Information System (GIS). Geosciences 2018, 8, 132.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Geosciences EISSN 2076-3263 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top