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Open AccessArticle

Climate Variability Indices—A Guided Tour

1
Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, 60-809 Poznan, Poland
2
Institute of Computing Science, Poznań University of Technology, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
3
Center for Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (CAMIL), 60-965 Poznan, Poland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Isaac Ginis
Geosciences 2021, 11(3), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11030128
Received: 27 January 2021 / Revised: 3 March 2021 / Accepted: 8 March 2021 / Published: 10 March 2021
The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive review and characterization of selected climate variability indices. While we discuss many major climate variability mechanisms, we focus on four principal modes of climate variability related to the dynamics of Earth’s oceans and their interactions with the atmosphere: the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). All these oscillation modes are of broad interest and considerable relevance, also in climate impact studies related to teleconnections, i.e., relationships between climate variations at distant locations. We try to decipher temporal patterns present in time series of different oscillation modes in the ocean–atmosphere system using exploratory analysis of the raw data, their structure, and properties, as well as illustrating the quasi-periodic behavior via wavelet analysis. With this contribution, we hope to help researchers in identifying and selecting data sources and climate variability indices that match their needs. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate variability; El Niño-Southern Oscillation; North Atlantic Oscillation; Pacific Decadal Oscillation; Atlantic multi-decadal Oscillation climate variability; El Niño-Southern Oscillation; North Atlantic Oscillation; Pacific Decadal Oscillation; Atlantic multi-decadal Oscillation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Norel, M.; Kałczyński, M.; Pińskwar, I.; Krawiec, K.; Kundzewicz, Z.W. Climate Variability Indices—A Guided Tour. Geosciences 2021, 11, 128. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11030128

AMA Style

Norel M, Kałczyński M, Pińskwar I, Krawiec K, Kundzewicz ZW. Climate Variability Indices—A Guided Tour. Geosciences. 2021; 11(3):128. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11030128

Chicago/Turabian Style

Norel, Mateusz; Kałczyński, Michał; Pińskwar, Iwona; Krawiec, Krzysztof; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W. 2021. "Climate Variability Indices—A Guided Tour" Geosciences 11, no. 3: 128. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11030128

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