Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
The UC Softhand: Light Weight Adaptive Bionic Hand with a Compact Twisted String Actuation System
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Hybrid Multi-Physics Modeling of an Ultra-Fast Electro-Mechanical Actuator
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Actuators 2015, 4(4), 336-352;

What Is an Artificial Muscle? A Systemic Approach.

Institut National de Sciences Appliquées, University of Toulouse, Campus de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse, France
LAAS/CNRS, 7 avenue du Colonel Roche, 31400 Toulouse, France
Academic Editor: Delbert Tesar
Received: 24 October 2015 / Revised: 28 November 2015 / Accepted: 9 December 2015 / Published: 11 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Full-Text   |   PDF [696 KB, uploaded 11 December 2015]   |  


Artificial muscles define a large category of actuators we propose to analyze in a systemic framework by considering any artificial muscle as an open-loop stable system for any output which represents an artificial muscle dimension resulting from its “contraction”, understood in a broad meaning. This approach makes it possible to distinguish the artificial muscle from other actuators and to specify an original model for a linear artificial muscle, according to the theory of linear systems. Such a linear artificial muscle concept exhibits a constant stiffness independent on its control value. It is shown that a biomimetic actuator, made of two antagonist artificial muscles, requires that artificial muscle static characteristic, even in its most simplified form, is non-linear in the meaning of systems theory, to make possible the control of both actuator position and stiffness. However, we also attempt to show that a linear viscous damping can be a practical way for the dynamic behavior of the artificial muscle to be in relatively good accordance with the so-called Hill curve, interpreted as the dynamic characteristic linking the maximum contraction velocity of the artificial muscle to varying loads lifted against gravity. View Full-Text
Keywords: artificial muscle; biomimetic actuator; actuator classification artificial muscle; biomimetic actuator; actuator classification

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tondu, B. What Is an Artificial Muscle? A Systemic Approach.. Actuators 2015, 4, 336-352.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Actuators EISSN 2076-0825 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top