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Societies 2018, 8(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8040098

Fare Evasion and Ticket Forgery in Public Transport: Insights from Germany, Austria and Switzerland

1
Institute for Transport and Logistics Management, WU (Vienna University of Economics and Business), Welthandelsplatz 1, 1020 Vienna, Austria
2
Department of International Business and Asian Studies, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Parkland Drive, 4215 Southport, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 30 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 8 October 2018
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Abstract

Local public transport companies provide important mobility services to the general public. Although these services are usually subsidised, companies rely on revenues generated by ticket sales. Therefore, fare evasion (i.e., people using a transport service without paying for it) and ticket forgery (the production of an illegal ticket facsimile) have considerable influence on the companies’ economic sustainability. As existing research regarding the economic perspective is limited, this paper presents a Delphi study that investigates the phenomena with a survey of experts in public transport companies and transport associations in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. The findings of the survey provide insights into the overall perception and discuss relevant aspects of both fare evasion and ticket forgery, thereby not only highlighting practical implications, but also helping policy makers shape adequate policies for public transport in societies. View Full-Text
Keywords: fare evasion; ticket forgery; local public transport; Delphi analysis; economic sustainability fare evasion; ticket forgery; local public transport; Delphi analysis; economic sustainability
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Fürst, E.W.M.; Herold, D.M. Fare Evasion and Ticket Forgery in Public Transport: Insights from Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Societies 2018, 8, 98.

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