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Societies 2014, 4(4), 672-688;

Animal Personhood in Mi’kmaq Perspective

Ontario HIV Treatment Network, 1300 Yonge Street, Suite 600, Toronto, ON M4T 1X3, Canada
Centre for Addiction & Mental Health, 33 Russell Street, Toronto, ON M5S 2S1, Canada
Received: 4 November 2014 / Revised: 24 November 2014 / Accepted: 26 November 2014 / Published: 3 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alimentary Relations, Animal Relations)
Full-Text   |   PDF [122 KB, uploaded 3 December 2014]


The Mi’kmaq are the First Nation people that traditionally inhabited the eastern coast of North America. This article explores the Mi’kmaq cultural view of non-human animals as siblings and persons, including elements shaping the Mi’kmaq relation with animals such as the belief that animals sacrifice themselves for food, that human and animal spirits are eternal, and a belief in reincarnation. The role of reciprocity in the animal–human relationship is examined through the concepts of respect and honor, and the Mi’kmaq value of avoiding scarcity (netukulimk) is expanded to include non-human animals. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mi’kmaq; animals; personhood; hunting; respect; reciprocity Mi’kmaq; animals; personhood; hunting; respect; reciprocity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Robinson, M. Animal Personhood in Mi’kmaq Perspective. Societies 2014, 4, 672-688.

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