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Open AccessArticle

Double Marginalized Livelihoods: Invisible Gender Inequality in Pastoral Societies

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Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Jimma University, Jimma, Po. Box 307, Ethiopia
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Department of Civic and Ethical Studies, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Po. Box 21, Ethiopia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Societies 2013, 3(1), 104-116; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc3010104
Received: 18 January 2013 / Revised: 1 February 2013 / Accepted: 4 February 2013 / Published: 6 February 2013
Achieving gender equality is the Third Millennium Development Goal, and the major challenge to poverty reduction is the inability of governments to address this at grass root levels. This study is therefore aimed at assessing gender inequality as it pertains to socio-economic factors in (agro-) pastoral societies. It tries to explain how “invisible” forces perpetuate gender inequality, based on data collected from male and female household heads and community representatives. The findings indicate that in comparison with men, women lack access to control rights over livestock, land, and income, which are critical to securing a sustainable livelihood. However, this inequality remains invisible to women who appear to readily submit to local customs, and to the community at large due to a lack of public awareness and gender based interventions. In addition, violence against women is perpetuated through traditional beliefs and sustained by tourists to the area. As a result, (agro-) pastoral woman face double marginalization, for being pastoralist, and for being a woman. View Full-Text
Keywords: (agro-) pastoral women; gender inequality; double marginalization; well-being; quantitative research; Ethiopia (agro-) pastoral women; gender inequality; double marginalization; well-being; quantitative research; Ethiopia
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Eneyew, A.; Mengistu, S. Double Marginalized Livelihoods: Invisible Gender Inequality in Pastoral Societies. Societies 2013, 3, 104-116.

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