Next Article in Journal
Two Decades of Invasive Western Corn Rootworm Population Monitoring in Croatia
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of the Environmental Temperature on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes: A Review
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Molecular Analysis of Forensically Important Blow Flies in Thailand

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
Institute of Legal Medicine, Forensic Biology/Entomology, Kennedyallee 104, Frankfurt am Main 60596, Germany
Department for Forensic Genetics, Institute of Forensic Medicine and Traffic Medicine, Voßstraße 2, Heidelberg 69115, Germany
Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2018, 9(4), 159;
Received: 13 September 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
PDF [3008 KB, uploaded 8 November 2018]


Blow flies are the first insect group to colonize on a dead body and thus correct species identification is a crucial step in forensic investigations for estimating the minimum postmortem interval, as developmental times are species-specific. Due to the difficulty of traditional morphology-based identification such as the morphological similarity of closely related species and uncovered taxonomic keys for all developmental stages, DNA-based identification has been increasing in interest, especially in high biodiversity areas such as Thailand. In this study, the effectiveness of long mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and II (COI and COII) sequences (1247 and 635 bp, respectively) in identifying 16 species of forensically relevant blow flies in Thailand (Chrysomya bezziana, Chrysomya chani, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya nigripes, Chrysomya pinguis, Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya thanomthini, Chrysomya villeneuvi, Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia papuensis, Lucilia porphyrina, Lucilia sinensis, Hemipyrellia ligurriens, Hemipyrellia pulchra, Hypopygiopsis infumata, and Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini) was assessed using distance-based (Kimura two-parameter distances based on Best Match, Best Close Match, and All Species Barcodes criteria) and tree-based (grouping taxa by sequence similarity in the neighbor-joining tree) methods. Analyses of the obtained sequence data demonstrated that COI and COII genes were effective markers for accurate species identification of the Thai blow flies. This study has not only demonstrated the genetic diversity of Thai blow flies, but also provided a reliable DNA reference database for further use in forensic entomology within the country and other regions where these species exist. View Full-Text
Keywords: forensic entomology; molecular identification; COI; COII; blow flies; Thailand forensic entomology; molecular identification; COI; COII; blow flies; Thailand

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sontigun, N.; Sukontason, K.L.; Amendt, J.; Zajac, B.K.; Zehner, R.; Sukontason, K.; Chareonviriyaphap, T.; Wannasan, A. Molecular Analysis of Forensically Important Blow Flies in Thailand. Insects 2018, 9, 159.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Insects EISSN 2075-4450 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top