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Sodium Channel Mutations and Pyrethroid Resistance in Aedes aegypti

Department of Entomology, Genetics and Neuroscience Programs, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5, Canada
Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194223, Russia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: USDA-ARS, Biological Control of Pest Research Unit, 59 Lee Road, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA
Academic Editors: Steven P. Bradbury and Joel R. Coats
Insects 2016, 7(4), 60;
Received: 2 September 2016 / Revised: 22 October 2016 / Accepted: 26 October 2016 / Published: 31 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Molecular Toxicology)
PDF [1441 KB, uploaded 31 October 2016]


Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insect pests and human disease vectors. Voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary targets of pyrethroid insecticides. Mutations in the sodium channel have been shown to be responsible for pyrethroid resistance, known as knockdown resistance (kdr), in various insects including mosquitoes. In Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the principal urban vectors of dengue, zika, and yellow fever viruses, multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms in the sodium channel gene have been found in pyrethroid-resistant populations and some of them have been functionally confirmed to be responsible for kdr in an in vitro expression system, Xenopus oocytes. This mini-review aims to provide an update on the identification and functional characterization of pyrethroid resistance-associated sodium channel mutations from Aedes aegypti. The collection of kdr mutations not only helped us develop molecular markers for resistance monitoring, but also provided valuable information for computational molecular modeling of pyrethroid receptor sites on the sodium channel. View Full-Text
Keywords: sodium channel; pyrethroid insecticide; knockdown resistance; Aedes aegypti sodium channel; pyrethroid insecticide; knockdown resistance; Aedes aegypti

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Du, Y.; Nomura, Y.; Zhorov, B.S.; Dong, K. Sodium Channel Mutations and Pyrethroid Resistance in Aedes aegypti. Insects 2016, 7, 60.

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