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Article

Field Efficacy of Cordyceps javanica, White Oil and Spinetoram for the Management of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri

1
Indian River Research and Education Center, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, 2199 South Rock Road, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA
2
Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, 2685 State Road 29 N, Immokalee, FL 34142, USA
3
The Florida Research Center for Agricultural Sustainability, 7055 33rd Street, Vero Beach, FL 32966, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Denis J. Wright
Insects 2021, 12(9), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090824
Received: 1 July 2021 / Revised: 8 September 2021 / Accepted: 9 September 2021 / Published: 14 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving IPM of Specialty Crop Pests and Global Food Security)
Citrus greening is devastating the citrus industry in Florida, and conventional synthetic pesticide applications are rapidly becoming unsustainable for the control of the vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri. Laboratory experiments indicate that the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps javanica, alone and in combination with horticultural oils, may offer a more sustainable strategy to manage AsCP. The field study in this paper indicated that C. javanica alone, C. javanica mixed with white oil, and spinetoram (the chemical standard) mixed with white oil significantly suppressed AsCP populations by 60–90% and 61–83% 7 and 14 days after treatment, respectively, in 2018, compared to white oil only and the untreated control treatments. Only spinetoram + oil suppressed AsCP 100% up to 7 days after treatment in 2019. AsCP’s natural enemies, mostly lady beetles, were observed on fungal-treated citrus trees and the untreated control. Overall, C. javanica was as effective in suppressing AsCP adults as spinetoram for up to 14 days in field conditions and was compatible with the psyllids’ natural enemies. The use of C. javanica in citrus-integrated pest management is suggested.
Citrus greening disease is devastating the citrus industry in Florida, and the conventional synthetic pesticide applications used to control the vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri, are rapidly becoming unsustainable. Various laboratory experiments indicate that the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps javanica, alone and in combination with horticultural oils, may offer a more sustainable strategy for the management of AsCP. Field studies conducted in 2018 and 2019 in mature citrus indicated that C. javanica alone, C. javanica mixed with white oil, and the chemical standard spinetoram mixed with white oil significantly suppressed AsCP adult populations by 61–83% up to 14 days after treatment in 2018, although colony-forming units of C. javanica were still present on the leaves 21 days after treatment (DAT). Only spinetoram + oil significantly suppressed AsCP, by 100%, up to 7 DAT in 2019. Natural enemies of AsCP, including lady beetles, lacewing larvae and the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata, were observed in the fungal treatments and the untreated control. The AsCP suppression by C. javanica and its compatibility with beneficial organisms suggest the potential use of this entomopathogenic fungus in citrus-integrated pest management. View Full-Text
Keywords: citrus greening; entomopathogenic fungus; lady beetles; horticultural oils; Isaria fumosorosea; insecticide; natural enemies citrus greening; entomopathogenic fungus; lady beetles; horticultural oils; Isaria fumosorosea; insecticide; natural enemies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Avery, P.B.; Duren, E.B.; Qureshi, J.A.; Adair, R.C., Jr.; Adair, M.M.; Cave, R.D. Field Efficacy of Cordyceps javanica, White Oil and Spinetoram for the Management of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri. Insects 2021, 12, 824. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090824

AMA Style

Avery PB, Duren EB, Qureshi JA, Adair RC Jr., Adair MM, Cave RD. Field Efficacy of Cordyceps javanica, White Oil and Spinetoram for the Management of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri. Insects. 2021; 12(9):824. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090824

Chicago/Turabian Style

Avery, Pasco B., Emily B. Duren, Jawwad A. Qureshi, Robert C. Adair Jr., Matthew M. Adair, and Ronald D. Cave 2021. "Field Efficacy of Cordyceps javanica, White Oil and Spinetoram for the Management of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri" Insects 12, no. 9: 824. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090824

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