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Article

Aedes Mosquito Distribution along a Transect from Rural to Urban Settings in Yaoundé, Cameroon

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Vector Borne Diseases Laboratory of the Research Unit Biology and Applied Ecology (VBID-RUBAE), Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang P.O. Box 067, Cameroon
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Institut de Recherche de Yaoundé (IRY), Organisation de Coordination pour la Lutte Contre les Endémies en Afrique Centrale (OCEAC), Yaoundé P.O. Box 288, Cameroon
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Department of Animal Physiology and Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé P.O. Box 337, Cameroon
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Centre for Research in Infectious Disease (CRID), Yaoundé P.O. Box 13591, Cameroon
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Vector Biology Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chelsea T. Smartt
Insects 2021, 12(9), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090819
Received: 16 July 2021 / Revised: 25 August 2021 / Accepted: 7 September 2021 / Published: 12 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Pest and Vector Management)
Vector surveillance is key for the prevention of arbovirus disease outbreaks. In the present study, the distribution of the Aedes vector population between the city centre and a close rural setting was assessed. Larval mosquito collections were undertaken from November 2019 to November 2020 along a transect from the rural area to the city centre. All containers with water were inspected. Some entomological indices evaluating transmission risk were estimated. A total of 6332 mosquito larvae were collected. Different Aedes species were recorded, including Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegytpi, Ae. simpsoni and Aedes spp. The density of mosquitoes collected during the rainy season (4706) was high compared to the dry season (1626). Ae. albopictus was the most abundant Aedes species in the urban (96.89%) and peri-urban (95.09%) sites while Ae. aegypti was the most abundant species in rural settings (68.56%). Ae. Albopictus preferred breeding habitats were discarded tires (42.51%), whereas Ae. aegypti was more prevalent in plastic containers used for storing water (65.87%). High stegomyia indexes traducing a high arbovirus transmission risk were recorded. The study suggests a high frequency of Aedes species in Yaoundé and its neighbourhood and stresses the need for urgent action to control Aedes populations in the city of Yaoundé.
Introduction: The surveillance of mosquito vectors is important for the control of arboviruses diseases worldwide. Detailed information on the bionomics and distribution of their main vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, is essential for assessing disease transmission risk and for better planning of control interventions. Methods: Entomological surveys were carried out from November 2019 to November 2020 in six localities of Yaoundé city following a transect from urban to rural settings: two urban (Obili, Mvan), two peri-urban (Simbock, Ahala) and two rural areas (Lendom, Elig-essomballa)—during rainy and dry seasons. All water containers were inspected. Aedes mosquito abundance, species distribution and seasonal distribution patterns were compared using generalized linear models. Stegomyia indexes were estimated to determine the risk of arbovirus transmission. Results: A total of 6332 mosquitoes larvae were collected (2342 in urban areas, 1694 in peri-urban areas and 2296 in rural sites). Aedes species recorded included Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegytpi, Ae. simpsoni and Aedes spp. High mosquito abundance was registered in the rainy season (4706) compared to the dry season (1626) (p < 0.0001). Ae. albopictus was the most abundant Aedes species in urban (96.89%) and peri-urban (95.09%) sites whereas Ae. aegypti was more prevalent in rural sites (68.56%) (p < 0.0001). Both species were found together in 71 larval habitats. Ae. albopictus was mostly found in discarded tires (42.51%), whereas Ae. aegypti was more prevalent in plastic containers used for storing water (65.87%). The majority of Aedes mosquitoes’ breeding places were situated close to human dwellings (0–10 m). Conclusion: Uncontrolled urbanization seems to greatly favour the presence of Aedes mosquito species around human dwellings in Yaoundé. Controlling Aedes mosquito distribution is becoming urgent to reduce the risk of arbovirus outbreaks in the city of Yaoundé. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aedes albopictus; Aedes aegypti; rural; peri-urban; urban; breeding site; Yaoundé; Cameroon Aedes albopictus; Aedes aegypti; rural; peri-urban; urban; breeding site; Yaoundé; Cameroon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Djiappi-Tchamen, B.; Nana-Ndjangwo, M.S.; Tchuinkam, T.; Makoudjou, I.; Nchoutpouen, E.; Kopya, E.; Talipouo, A.; Bamou, R.; Mayi, M.P.A.; Awono-Ambene, P.; Wondji, C.; Antonio-Nkondjio, C. Aedes Mosquito Distribution along a Transect from Rural to Urban Settings in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Insects 2021, 12, 819. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090819

AMA Style

Djiappi-Tchamen B, Nana-Ndjangwo MS, Tchuinkam T, Makoudjou I, Nchoutpouen E, Kopya E, Talipouo A, Bamou R, Mayi MPA, Awono-Ambene P, Wondji C, Antonio-Nkondjio C. Aedes Mosquito Distribution along a Transect from Rural to Urban Settings in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Insects. 2021; 12(9):819. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090819

Chicago/Turabian Style

Djiappi-Tchamen, Borel, Mariette S. Nana-Ndjangwo, Timoléon Tchuinkam, Idene Makoudjou, Elysée Nchoutpouen, Edmond Kopya, Abdou Talipouo, Roland Bamou, Marie P.A. Mayi, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Charles Wondji, and Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio. 2021. "Aedes Mosquito Distribution along a Transect from Rural to Urban Settings in Yaoundé, Cameroon" Insects 12, no. 9: 819. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090819

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