Next Article in Journal
Investigating Virus–Host Interactions in Cultured Primary Honey Bee Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
Workflows for Rapid Functional Annotation of Diverse Arthropod Genomes
Previous Article in Journal
Cytochrome P450s Are Essential for Insecticide Tolerance in the Endoparasitoid Wasp Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
Previous Article in Special Issue
The USDA-ARS Ag100Pest Initiative: High-Quality Genome Assemblies for Agricultural Pest Arthropod Research
Brief Report

Genome Sequence of the Asian Honeybee in Pakistan Sheds Light on Its Phylogenetic Relationship with Other Honeybees

1
Laboratory of Evolutionary and Functional Genomics, School of Life Sciences, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331, China
2
Chongqing General Station of Animal Husbandry Technology Extension, Chongqing 401121, China
3
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Faisalabad Campus, Riphah International University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
4
Entomology Section, Agriculture Research Institute D. I. Khan, Dera Ismail Khan 29120, Pakistan
5
Department of Entomology, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan
6
Faculty of Animal Science and Technology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, China
7
Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contribute equally.
Academic Editors: Surya Saha and Monica Poelchau
Insects 2021, 12(7), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12070652
Received: 29 May 2021 / Revised: 6 July 2021 / Accepted: 15 July 2021 / Published: 16 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Genomics)
The Asian honeybee, Apis cerana, is used for honey production and pollination services in Pakistan. However, its genome sequence is still unknown. We collected A. cerana samples from its main rearing region in Pakistan and performed whole genome sequencing. We obtained a remarkably complete genome sequence for A. cerana in Pakistan, from which we identified a total of 11,864 protein-coding genes. Phylogeny analysis indicated an unexpectedly close relationship between A. cerana in Pakistan and those in China, suggesting a potential human introduction of the species between the two countries. Our results will facilitate the genetic improvement and conservation of A. cerana in Pakistan.
In Pakistan, Apis cerana, the Asian honeybee, has been used for honey production and pollination services. However, its genomic makeup and phylogenetic relationship with those in other countries are still unknown. We collected A. cerana samples from the main cerana-keeping region in Pakistan and performed whole genome sequencing. A total of 28 Gb of Illumina shotgun reads were generated, which were used to assemble the genome. The obtained genome assembly had a total length of 214 Mb, with a GC content of 32.77%. The assembly had a scaffold N50 of 2.85 Mb and a BUSCO completeness score of 99%, suggesting a remarkably complete genome sequence for A. cerana in Pakistan. A MAKER pipeline was employed to annotate the genome sequence, and a total of 11,864 protein-coding genes were identified. Of them, 6750 genes were assigned at least one GO term, and 8813 genes were annotated with at least one protein domain. Genome-scale phylogeny analysis indicated an unexpectedly close relationship between A. cerana in Pakistan and those in China, suggesting a potential human introduction of the species between the two countries. Our results will facilitate the genetic improvement and conservation of A. cerana in Pakistan. View Full-Text
Keywords: Apis cerana; genome sequencing; phylogeny Apis cerana; genome sequencing; phylogeny
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Tan, H.; Naeem, M.; Ali, H.; Shakeel, M.; Kuang, H.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, C. Genome Sequence of the Asian Honeybee in Pakistan Sheds Light on Its Phylogenetic Relationship with Other Honeybees. Insects 2021, 12, 652. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12070652

AMA Style

Tan H, Naeem M, Ali H, Shakeel M, Kuang H, Zhang Z, Sun C. Genome Sequence of the Asian Honeybee in Pakistan Sheds Light on Its Phylogenetic Relationship with Other Honeybees. Insects. 2021; 12(7):652. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12070652

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tan, Hongwei, Muhammad Naeem, Hussain Ali, Muhammad Shakeel, Haiou Kuang, Ze Zhang, and Cheng Sun. 2021. "Genome Sequence of the Asian Honeybee in Pakistan Sheds Light on Its Phylogenetic Relationship with Other Honeybees" Insects 12, no. 7: 652. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12070652

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop