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Effect of Temperature on the Development and Survival of Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Preying on Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae)

1
Bioenvironmental Division, Chungnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services, Yesan 32418, Korea
2
Department of Industrial Entomology, Korea National College of Agriculture and Fisheries, Jeonju 54874, Korea
3
Department of Plant Medicals, Andong National University, Andong 36729, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tetsuo Gotoh
Insects 2021, 12(6), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12060508
Received: 11 April 2021 / Revised: 27 May 2021 / Accepted: 28 May 2021 / Published: 31 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Physiology, Reproduction and Development)
The predatory gall midge is one of the most effective natural enemies of the two-spotted spider mite, which is an economic pest causing a severe impact on a wide variety of plants worldwide. In general biocontrol programs, midges have been reared in insectaries and released into agriculture fields or greenhouses. In this study, we tested the effect of temperature on the development and survival of the predatory gall midge. The results showed that temperature played a crucial role in determining the emergence time and survival rate at each development stage. We described the responses to temperatures using several equations and estimated the values for explaining the observed biological patterns. The developed equations suggested that 23.3–28.7 °C temperatures were suitable for the total immature stage. In contrast, conditions around 8 °C and 35 °C should be avoided due to the high mortality. These results can help to determine the effective temperatures for both rearing and releasing, and ultimately contribute to the successful biological control of the spider mite.
The predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is an acarivorous species that mainly feeds on spider mites (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Because of its cosmopolitan distribution and predation efficacy, it is considered an important natural enemy available as a biological agent for augmentative biocontrol. However, despite its practical use, the thermal development and survival response to temperature have not yet been fully studied. In this study, we investigated the stage-specific development and survival of F. acarisuga at seven temperatures (11.5, 15.7, 19.8, 23.4, 27.7, 31.9, and 35.4 °C) to examine the effect of temperature on its lifecycle. All developmental stages could develop at 11.5–31.9 °C, but the performance was different according to the temperature. From the linear development rate models, the lower development threshold and thermal constant of the total immature stage were estimated at 8.2 °C and 200 DD, respectively. The potential optimal and upper threshold temperatures for the total immature stage were estimated as 29.3 and 35.1 °C using a non-linear development model. The operative thermal ranges for development and survival at 80% of the maximum rate were 24.5–32.3 and 14.7–28.7 °C, respectively. Thus, it was suggested that 24.5–28.7 °C was suitable for the total immature stage. In contrast, conditions around 8 °C and 35 °C should be avoided due to the lower development rate and high mortality. Our findings provide fundamental information for an effective mass-rearing and releasing program of F. acarisuga in an augmentative biocontrol program and help to predict phenology. View Full-Text
Keywords: Feltiella acarisuga; predatory gall midge; thermal threshold; development rate; survivorship; mass rearing; biological control Feltiella acarisuga; predatory gall midge; thermal threshold; development rate; survivorship; mass rearing; biological control
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MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, Y.-S.; Baek, S.; Kim, M.-J. Effect of Temperature on the Development and Survival of Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Preying on Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae). Insects 2021, 12, 508. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12060508

AMA Style

Choi Y-S, Baek S, Kim M-J. Effect of Temperature on the Development and Survival of Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Preying on Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae). Insects. 2021; 12(6):508. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12060508

Chicago/Turabian Style

Choi, Yong-Seok, Sunghoon Baek, and Min-Jung Kim. 2021. "Effect of Temperature on the Development and Survival of Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Preying on Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae)" Insects 12, no. 6: 508. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12060508

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