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Article

Cold Storage Effects on Fitness of the Whitefly Parasitoids Encarsia sophia and Eretmocerus hayati

1
State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
2
Department of Biology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Mekelle University, Tigray 7000, Ethiopia
3
CE3C-Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes, Azorean Biodiversity Group, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of the Azores, PT-9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo, Portugal
4
Guangdong Laboratory of Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Shenzhen, Genome Analysis Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Area, Agricultural Genomics Institute at Shenzhen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenzhen 518120, China
5
College of Plant Health and Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(7), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11070428
Received: 29 May 2020 / Revised: 6 July 2020 / Accepted: 6 July 2020 / Published: 9 July 2020
Successful biological control of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci involves the mass rearing of biocontrol agents in large numbers for field release. Cold storage of the biocontrol agents is often necessary to provide a sufficient number of biocontrol agents during an eventual pest outbreak. In this study, the fitness of two whitefly parasitoids Encarsia sophia Girault and Dodd (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and Eretmocerus hayati Zolnerowich and Rose (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was evaluated under fluctuating cold storage temperatures. The emergence rate of old pupae of either species was not affected when stored at 12, 10, 8 and 6 °C for 1 week. Cold storage had no effect on the longevity of the emerging adult En. sophia except young pupae stored at 4 °C, while Er. hayati was negatively affected after 2 weeks of storage time at all temperatures. Parasitism by adults emerging from older pupae stored at 12 °C for 1 week was equivalent to the control. Combined with the results for the emergence time, we suggest that the old pupal stage of En. sophia and Er. hayati could be stored at 12 and 10 °C, respectively (transferred every 22 h to 26 ± 1 °C for 2 h), for 1 week, with no or little adverse effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluctuating temperature; parasitoid; Hymenoptera; Aphelinidae; Bemisia tabaci; Aleyrodidae fluctuating temperature; parasitoid; Hymenoptera; Aphelinidae; Bemisia tabaci; Aleyrodidae
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kidane, D.; Ferrante, M.; Man, X.-M.; Liu, W.-X.; Wan, F.-H.; Yang, N.-W. Cold Storage Effects on Fitness of the Whitefly Parasitoids Encarsia sophia and Eretmocerus hayati. Insects 2020, 11, 428. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11070428

AMA Style

Kidane D, Ferrante M, Man X-M, Liu W-X, Wan F-H, Yang N-W. Cold Storage Effects on Fitness of the Whitefly Parasitoids Encarsia sophia and Eretmocerus hayati. Insects. 2020; 11(7):428. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11070428

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kidane, Dawit, Marco Ferrante, Xiao-Ming Man, Wan-Xue Liu, Fang-Hao Wan, and Nian-Wan Yang. 2020. "Cold Storage Effects on Fitness of the Whitefly Parasitoids Encarsia sophia and Eretmocerus hayati" Insects 11, no. 7: 428. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11070428

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