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Article

Wavelength-Specific Behavior of the Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis): Evidence for a Blue-Green Chromatic Mechanism

1
Institute of Horticultural Production Systems, Section Phytomedicine—Applied Entomology, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30419 Hannover, Germany
2
Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation, Agroecology and Organic Farming Group, University of Bonn, 53121 Bonn, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(7), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11070423
Received: 28 April 2020 / Revised: 4 July 2020 / Accepted: 5 July 2020 / Published: 9 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Sensory Ecology and Applications for Pest Management)
The western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) is a serious pest in horticulture, feeding on leaf tissue and floral resources. Blue and yellow sticky traps are commonly used for monitoring and control in greenhouses. The mechanisms underlying the color preferences are largely unknown. The use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is a promising approach to increase the attractiveness of visual traps and to study the color choice behavior in insects. The color preferences of F. occidentalis were systematically investigated in a series of choice experiments with several LEDs from the ultraviolet (UV) and visible spectral range. Blue LEDs were most attractive, followed by green, while only a moderate attractiveness of UV was observed. Blue and green were identified as two separate attractive ranges. When light from blue and green LEDs was mixed, the attractiveness decreased compared to its single components. In conclusion, F. occidentalis exhibits two different wavelength specific behaviors towards blue and green. Compelling indications are provided that these behaviors are controlled by two photoreceptors maximally sensitive in the blue and green range with an inhibitory chromatic interaction between both. Since the known UV sensitive photoreceptor could be confirmed, a trichromatic photoreceptor setup is suggested for F. occidentalis. For advanced plant protection strategies, the results offer several opportunities to optimize monitoring or even develop mass trapping devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: color preference; color vision; chromatic interaction; action spectra; light-emitting diode; LED; visual trap; monitoring color preference; color vision; chromatic interaction; action spectra; light-emitting diode; LED; visual trap; monitoring
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stukenberg, N.; Pietruska, M.; Waldherr, A.; Meyhöfer, R. Wavelength-Specific Behavior of the Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis): Evidence for a Blue-Green Chromatic Mechanism. Insects 2020, 11, 423. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11070423

AMA Style

Stukenberg N, Pietruska M, Waldherr A, Meyhöfer R. Wavelength-Specific Behavior of the Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis): Evidence for a Blue-Green Chromatic Mechanism. Insects. 2020; 11(7):423. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11070423

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stukenberg, Niklas, Markus Pietruska, Axel Waldherr, and Rainer Meyhöfer. 2020. "Wavelength-Specific Behavior of the Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis): Evidence for a Blue-Green Chromatic Mechanism" Insects 11, no. 7: 423. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11070423

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