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Open AccessArticle

Host Specificity of the Parasitic Wasp Anaphes flavipes (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) and a New Defence in Its Hosts (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Oulema spp.)

1
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, CZ-165 00 Prague 6—Suchdol, Czech Republic
2
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Viničná 7, CZ-128 43 Prague 2, Czech Republic
3
Institute of Entomology, Biological Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, Branišovská 31, CZ-370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
4
Group Function of Invertebrate and Plant Biodiversity in Agro-Ecosystems, Crop Research Institute, Drnovská 507, CZ-161 06 Praha 6—Ruzyně, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(3), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11030175
Received: 17 January 2020 / Revised: 6 March 2020 / Accepted: 8 March 2020 / Published: 10 March 2020
The parasitic wasp Anaphes flavipes (Förster, 1841) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) is an important egg parasitoid of cereal leaf beetles. Some species of cereal leaf beetle co-occur in the same localities, but the host specificity of the wasp to these crop pests has not yet been examined in detail. A lack of knowledge of host specificity can have a negative effect on the use of this wasps in biological control programs addressed to specific pest species or genus. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the host specificity of A. flavipes for three species of cereal leaf beetles (Oulema duftschmidi Redtenbacher, 1874, Oulema gallaeciana Heyden, 1879 and Oulema melanopus Linnaeus, 1758) in central Europe. For the first time, a new host defence against egg parasitoids occurring in O. gallaeciana from localities in the Czech Republic, a strong dark sticky layer on the egg surface, was found and described. The host specificity of A. flavipes was studied in the locality with the presence of this defence on O. gallaeciana eggs (the dark sticky layer) (Czech Republic) and in a control locality (Germany), where no such host defence was observed. Contrary to the idea that a host defence mechanism can change the host specificity of parasitoids, the wasps from these two localities did not display any differences in that. Respectively, even though it has been observed that eggs with sticky dark layer can prevent parasitization, the overall rate of parasitization of the three species of cereal beetles has not been affected. However, in our view, new host defence can influence the effects of biological control, as eggs of all Oulema spp. in the locality are protected against parasitization from the wasps stuck on the sticky layer of the host eggs of O. gallaeciana. View Full-Text
Keywords: parasitoid-host interaction; biological control; host spectrum; Mymaridae parasitoid-host interaction; biological control; host spectrum; Mymaridae
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  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Link: https://zenodo.org/deposit/3611360
    Description: Data of experiment "Host defense"
  • Externally hosted supplementary file 2
    Link: https://zenodo.org/deposit/3611360
    Description: Data of experiment "Host specifity"
  • Externally hosted supplementary file 3
    Link: https://zenodo.org/deposit/3611360
    Description: The figure for ilustration of host defense againts parasitoids "eggs of Oulema gallaeciana with a black sticky layer" (locality in Czech Republic)
  • Externally hosted supplementary file 4
    Link: https://zenodo.org/deposit/3611360
    Description: The figure for ilustration "eggs of Oulema gallaeciana without a black sticky layer" (control locality in Germany)
MDPI and ACS Style

Samková, A.; Hadrava, J.; Skuhrovec, J.; Janšta, P. Host Specificity of the Parasitic Wasp Anaphes flavipes (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) and a New Defence in Its Hosts (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Oulema spp.). Insects 2020, 11, 175.

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