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Sulfoxaflor Residues in Pollen and Nectar of Cotton Applied through Drip Irrigation and Their Potential Exposure to Apis mellifera L.

1
State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
2
Key Laboratory of Natural Pesticide and Chemical Biology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
3
Department of Environmental Horticulture and Mid-Florida Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Apopka, FL 32703, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(2), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11020114
Received: 29 December 2019 / Revised: 6 February 2020 / Accepted: 6 February 2020 / Published: 10 February 2020
Systemic insecticides have been applied through drip irrigation for controlling crop pests, but few studies have addressed potential negative effects of the application on non-target organisms. In this study, the safety of sulfoxaflor applied at 450 or 700 g a.i. ha1 through drip irrigation at different times before flowering or during flowering to honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) was studied in 2016–2017 in a cotton production field in Xinjiang, China. Results showed that sulfoxaflor residues in pollen and nectar of cotton treated with sulfoxaflor at 450 g a.i. ha1 before and during flowering through drip irrigation were either undetectable or no more than 17 μg·kg1. Application of sulfoxaflor at 700 g a.i. ha1 before flowering resulted in ≤ 14.2 μg·kg1 of sulfoxaflor in pollen and < 0.68 μg·kg1 in nectar. Sulfoxaflor applied at this higher rate during flowering had the highest residue, up to 39.2 μg·kg1 in pollen and 13.8 μg·kg1 in nectar. Risk assessments by contact exposure and dietary exposure showed that drip application of sulfoxaflor at the two rates before or during flowering posed little risk to honey bees. Thus, drip application of sulfoxaflor could represent an environmentally benign method for controlling cotton aphid.
Keywords: Aphis gossypii; Apis mellifera; drip irrigation; sulfoxaflor; residue level Aphis gossypii; Apis mellifera; drip irrigation; sulfoxaflor; residue level
MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, H.; Chen, J.; Zhao, C.; Tian, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Xu, H. Sulfoxaflor Residues in Pollen and Nectar of Cotton Applied through Drip Irrigation and Their Potential Exposure to Apis mellifera L.. Insects 2020, 11, 114.

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