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Synergistic Toxicity of Plant Essential Oils Combined with Pyrethroid Insecticides against Blow Flies and the House Fly

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
Graduate School, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
School of Veterinary Sciences, The University of Queensland, Gatton 4343, Australia
College of Medicine and Public Health, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani 34190, Thailand
Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2019, 10(6), 178;
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
PDF [544 KB, uploaded 21 June 2019]


Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) are filth flies of medical importance, and control of their population is needed. As insecticide applications have resulted in fly resistance, and the exploration of plant essential oils (EOs) has increased against filth flies, this study assessed the combination of EOs with pyrethoids to enhance toxic efficacy. The EOs of five effective plants were screened initially against the house fly (Musca domestica L.). Their chemical constituent was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The main components of Boesenbergia rotunda (Zingiberaceae) rhizome, Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) rhizome, Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae) fruit peel, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae) seed, and Zanthoxylum limonella (Rutaceae) fruit were δ-3-caren (35.25%), β-turmerone (51.68%), β-pinene (26.56%), p-cumic aldehyde (58.21%), and dipentene (60.22%), respectively. The screening test revealed that the three most effective plant EOs were from B. rotunda, C. longa and O. gratissimum, which were selected for the combination with two pyrethroid insecticides (permethrin and deltamethrin), in order to enhance their synergistic efficacy against the blow flies, Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius, Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart, and Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann, and the house fly. Synergistic action was presented in almost all of the flies tested with permenthrin/deltamethrin/EOs mixtures. It was interesting that the combination of deltamethrin with three EOs showed a synergistic effect on all of the tested flies. However, an antagonistic effect was observed in C. megacephala and M. domestica treated with permethrin-B. rotunda and C. megacephala treated with permethrin-O. gratissimum. The LD50 of insecticides decreased when combined with plant EOs. This alternative strategy will be helpful in developing a formula for effective fly control management. View Full-Text
Keywords: plant; essential oil; pyrethroid; synergism; fly control plant; essential oil; pyrethroid; synergism; fly control

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Suwannayod, S.; Sukontason, K.L.; Pitasawat, B.; Junkum, A.; Limsopatham, K.; Jones, M.K.; Somboon, P.; Leksomboon, R.; Chareonviriyaphap, T.; Tawatsin, A.; Thavara, U.; Sukontason, K. Synergistic Toxicity of Plant Essential Oils Combined with Pyrethroid Insecticides against Blow Flies and the House Fly. Insects 2019, 10, 178.

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