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Physalis peruviana L. (Solanaceae) Is Not a Host of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae): Evidence from Multi-Year Field and Laboratory Studies in Colombia

1
Instituto de Ecología, A.C. (INECOL), Clúster Científico y Tecnológico BioMimic®, Carretera Antigua a Coatepec 351, El Haya, Xalapa 91073, Veracruz, Mexico
2
Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA), Av. Calle 26 No. 85B-09, Bogotá 110931, Colombia
3
Agencia de Desarrollo Rural (ADR), Calle 43 # 57-41 CAN, Bogotá 111321, Colombia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Insects 2019, 10(12), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10120434
Received: 22 October 2019 / Revised: 16 November 2019 / Accepted: 26 November 2019 / Published: 4 December 2019
Scientifically-based, tephritid fly host status determination lies at the heart of strategic regulatory decisions impinging on international fruit trade. Here we conducted intensive field and laboratory studies with peaches as controls, to determine the host status of Physalis peruviana for the Medfly—Ceratitis capitata, as this fruit is experiencing a consumption boom worldwide. A total of 98,132 Uchuvas (local name), collected in Colombia from the plant or the ground over a three-year period (2016–2018) did not yield a single C. capitata larva or pupa, thus reaching a Probit 9 level with 99.9968% efficacy and 96% confidence level. Field-cage studies with enclosed fruit-bearing Uchuva plants, exposing fruit with an intact, damaged or totally removed husk to the attack of C. capitata, also failed to yield infestations. Highly artificial choice experiments, exposing gravid females to unripe and fully ripe fruit, resulted in an absence of infestations, even when overripe Uchuvas were artificially damaged. The husk and surface resins/waxes inhibit fly landings on fruit and oviposition activity. Considering our results and the fact that the foliage, husk and fruit of P. peruviana are repellent/toxic to insects, we conclude that this plant should be treated as a non-natural and non-conditional host of C. capitata. View Full-Text
Keywords: host status; non-natural host; non-conditional host; Uchuva—Physalis peruviana; Solanaceae; Medfly—Ceratitis capitata; Diptera: Tephritidae; international trade host status; non-natural host; non-conditional host; Uchuva—Physalis peruviana; Solanaceae; Medfly—Ceratitis capitata; Diptera: Tephritidae; international trade
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aluja, M.; Guillén, L.; Castro, Á.; Cárdenas, M.L.; Hurtado, M.; Durán, Ó.; Arévalo-Peñaranda, E. Physalis peruviana L. (Solanaceae) Is Not a Host of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae): Evidence from Multi-Year Field and Laboratory Studies in Colombia. Insects 2019, 10, 434.

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