Next Article in Journal
Concomitant Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Large-Vessel Vasculitis Visualized on 18F-FDG PET/CT
Next Article in Special Issue
Circulating Tumor Cell Analysis in Preclinical Mouse Models of Metastasis
Previous Article in Journal
Percutaneous, Imaging-Guided Biopsy of Bone Metastases
Previous Article in Special Issue
Perspective on Cancer Therapeutics Utilizing Analysis of Circulating Tumor Cells
Article Menu
Issue 2 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Diagnostics 2018, 8(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics8020026

Aneuploid CTC and CEC

Cytelligen, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
Received: 11 March 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circulating Tumor Cells as Cancer Diagnostic Biomarkers)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1591 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

Conventional circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection technologies are restricted to large tumor cells (> white blood cells (WBCs)), or those unique carcinoma cells with double positive expression of surface epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for isolation, and intracellular structural protein cytokeratins (CKs) for identification. With respect to detecting the full spectrum of highly heterogeneous circulating rare cells (CRCs), including CTCs and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), it is imperative to develop a strategy systematically coordinating all tri-elements of nucleic acids, biomarker proteins, and cellular morphology, to effectively enrich and comprehensively identify CRCs. Accordingly, a novel strategy integrating subtraction enrichment and immunostaining-fluorescence in situ hybridization (SE-iFISH), independent of cell size variation and free of hypotonic damage as well as anti-EpCAM perturbing, has been demonstrated to enable in situ phenotyping multi-protein expression, karyotyping chromosome aneuploidy, and detecting cytogenetic rearrangements of the ALK gene in non-hematologic CRCs. Symbolic non-synonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) of both the TP53 gene (P33R) in each single aneuploid CTCs, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) tumor suppressor gene in each examined aneuploid CECs, were identified for the first time across patients with diverse carcinomas. Comprehensive co-detecting observable aneuploid CTCs and CECs by SE-iFISH, along with applicable genomic and/or proteomic single cell molecular profiling, are anticipated to facilitate elucidating how those disparate categories of aneuploid CTCs and CECs cross-talk and functionally interplay with tumor angiogenesis, therapeutic drug resistance, tumor progression, and cancer metastasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: iFISH; aneuploidy; circulating rare cells; liquid biopsy; molecular diagnostics; whole genome amplification (WGA) and next generation sequencing (NGS) of the single CTC; proteomic and genomic profiling of the single CRC; tumor protein p53 (TP53) and CDKN2A tumor suppressor gene mutations; programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) iFISH; aneuploidy; circulating rare cells; liquid biopsy; molecular diagnostics; whole genome amplification (WGA) and next generation sequencing (NGS) of the single CTC; proteomic and genomic profiling of the single CRC; tumor protein p53 (TP53) and CDKN2A tumor suppressor gene mutations; programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, P.P. Aneuploid CTC and CEC. Diagnostics 2018, 8, 26.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Diagnostics EISSN 2075-4418 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top