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Diagnostics 2017, 7(2), 23;

Nuclear Molecular Imaging Strategies in Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy

Department of Pulmonary and Infectious Diseases, Nordsjællands Hospital Hillerød, 3400 Hillerød, Denmark
Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, 2750 Herlev, Denmark
Department of Oncology 5073, Rigshospitalet, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kalevi Kairemo
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Early Response in Cancer Management)
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Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy (ICT) is a new treatment strategy developed for the treatment of cancer. ICT inhibits pathways known to downregulate the innate immune response to cancer cells. These drugs have been shown to be effective in the treatment of a variety of cancers, including metastatic melanoma and lung cancer. Challenges in response evaluation of patients in ICT have risen as immune related side effects and immune cell infiltration may be confused with progressive disease. Furthermore, the timing of the evaluation scan may be challenged by relatively slow responses. To overcome this, new response criteria for evaluating these patients with morphologic imaging have been proposed. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss the current evidence for the use of molecular imaging, e.g., PET/CT (Positron Emission Tomography/Computer Tomography) with 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucoes (FDG) as an alternative imaging method for monitoring patients undergoing ICT. Following the currently available evidence, this review will primarily focus on patients with malignant melanoma. View Full-Text
Keywords: immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy; PET/CT; radiotracer; response evaluation/treatment monitoring immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy; PET/CT; radiotracer; response evaluation/treatment monitoring

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Guldbrandsen, K.F.; Hendel, H.W.; Langer, S.W.; Fischer, B.M. Nuclear Molecular Imaging Strategies in Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy. Diagnostics 2017, 7, 23.

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