Mobile Diagnostics Based on Motion? A Close Look at Motility Patterns in the Schistosome Life Cycle
Linder, E.; Varjo, S.; Thors, C. Mobile Diagnostics Based on Motion? A Close Look at Motility Patterns in the Schistosome Life Cycle. Diagnostics 2016, 6, 24.
Linder E, Varjo S, Thors C. Mobile Diagnostics Based on Motion? A Close Look at Motility Patterns in the Schistosome Life Cycle. Diagnostics. 2016; 6(2):24.Chicago/Turabian Style
Linder, Ewert; Varjo, Sami; Thors, Cecilia. 2016. "Mobile Diagnostics Based on Motion? A Close Look at Motility Patterns in the Schistosome Life Cycle." Diagnostics 6, no. 2: 24.
- Supplementary File 1:
Video S3 (MOV, 6829 KB)Schistosoma mansoni cercaria in water. The different motility behavior of the tail and the head parts is seen. The tail will be lost upon penetration of host skin. The frontal part will invade the skin of host and transform into schistosomulum. The recording frame rate 15.63 FPS is too slow to allow for adequate signal processing.
- Supplementary File 2:
Video S4 (MOV, 726 KB)Trichobilharzia cercaria attaches to skin-lipid coated microscope slide and attempts penetration. The wiggling motility of Trichobilharzia cercaria was recorded at a frame rate of 15.63 FPS. Original magnification of video recordings was 100×.
- Supplementary File 3:
Video S10 (MOV, 1788 KB)Swimming protozoa: Paramecium organisms swimming in water were captured with iPhone 4S equipped with 4× objective; 100-mL sample in glass jar. Dark field illumination using flashlight. The dark field imaging facilitates the segmentation of object candidates.
- Supplementary File 4:
Video S11 (MPG, 1060 KB)Individual trajectories of Paramecium have a waveform apparently due to the spiral/helical motion of the organism. The waveforms seen apparently represent a helical path and the rotational speed is deductible from the time interval between two maximal readings.
- Supplementary File 5:
Video S1 (MP4, 2942 KB)Hatching of Schistosoma mansoni egg: Miracidium rotating inside schistosome egg exposed to water. Rotational speed ~14.1 rpm (0.235 rps). Upon bursting of the egg shell (“hatching”), the miracidium rapidly accelerates to achieve a linear speed of about 0.3 mm/s (see Table 1). Digitized VHS-video recording at 15.63 FPS using microscope video camera Sony CCD-IRIS. Original magnification 200×.
- Supplementary File 6:
Video S2 (MP4, 480 KB)Miracidia released from isolated Schistosoma mansoni eggs suspended in water swim in droplet on microscope slide under a coverslip. Digitized VHS-video recording as described in the text of Figure 1. Eleven miracidia were identified by computer vision and trajectories of 7 were analyzed in detail (video recording with trajectories).
- Supplementary File 7:
Video S5 (MP4, 3759 KB)Ingestion of erythrocytes present in the medium.
- Supplementary File 8:
Video S6 (MP4, 15253 KB)Transport of erythrocytes within the gut of female worm; regurgitation within the intestine. In the female worm, egg maturation within the ootype is seen as pulsating, rhythmic contractions at a rate of 156 contractions/min.
- Supplementary File 9:
Video S7 (MP4, 5333 KB)Egg transportation through the oviduct can be seen as it ends with a conspicuous dorsal nick of the anterior end of the worm as the egg is ejected. Video recordings at 40× magnificatiion at a speed of 15.63 FPS obtained with microscope fitted with 4× objective and video camera Sony CCD-IRIS.
- Supplementary File 10:
Video S8 (MP4, 17008 KB)Video recording of marker beads 5–200 microns in diameter suspended in water. Imaging with iPhone 4S and screw cap-mounted lens.
- Supplementary File 11:
Video S9 (MP4, 931 KB)Turbatrix aceti at the water/air interphase. Illumination using external UV/blue light emitting diode (LED). Computer vision: The worm was extracted using Maximally Stable Extremal region, its ends were located, and the worm displacement from the line connecting the ends was monitored over time. The obtained oscillating signal was analyzed using Fourier transformation. The work flow is similar to what has been used for analysis of human motion.