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Article

Diagnosis of Ion-Exchange Resin Depositions in Paraffin Sections Using Corrective Light and Electron Microscopy-NanoSuit Method

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Institute for NanoSuit Research, Preeminent Medical Photonics Education & Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-3192, Japan
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Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-3192, Japan
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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-3192, Japan
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Department of Regenerative & Infectious Pathology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-3192, Japan
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Department of Tumor Pathology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-3192, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bruno Märkl
Diagnostics 2021, 11(7), 1193; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11071193
Received: 3 June 2021 / Revised: 25 June 2021 / Accepted: 27 June 2021 / Published: 30 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics)
Ion-exchange resins are commonly used to treat complications such as hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Gastrointestinal complications may occur as side effects of such treatments. Sodium and calcium polystyrene sulfonate (PS-Ca) are cation-exchange resins comprising an insoluble structure that binds to potassium ions in the digestive tract and exchanges them with sodium and calcium ions, respectively, to promote their elimination. PS crystals are rhomboid, refractive, and basophilic in hematoxylin and eosin staining. To differentiate PS crystals from other ion-exchange resin crystals such as sevelamer and cholestyramine, periodic acid–Schiff, Ziehl–Neelsen, and Congo red staining are usually performed. Here, correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM)-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and the NanoSuit method (CENM) was applied to perform a definitive identification of ion-exchange resins. CENM could detect sulfur in PS crystals without destroying the glass slides. Notably, PS retained its ion-exchange ability to bind potassium in paraffin sections. Differential diagnosis of anion-exchange resins, such as sevelamer and cholestyramine, was possible using these characteristics. The phosphorus:carbon ratio was higher in sevelamer than in cholestyramine after soaking paraffin sections in a phosphate solution. Therefore, CENM may be used for the differential pathological diagnosis of ion-exchange resins in paraffin sections. View Full-Text
Keywords: ion-exchange resin; NanoSuit; corrective light and electron microscopy; energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy ion-exchange resin; NanoSuit; corrective light and electron microscopy; energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ooishi, M.; Yamada, S.; Itoh, T.; Meguro, S.; Yagi, H.; Kosugi, I.; Iwashita, T.; Shinmura, K.; Misawa, K.; Hariyama, T.; Kawasaki, H. Diagnosis of Ion-Exchange Resin Depositions in Paraffin Sections Using Corrective Light and Electron Microscopy-NanoSuit Method. Diagnostics 2021, 11, 1193. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11071193

AMA Style

Ooishi M, Yamada S, Itoh T, Meguro S, Yagi H, Kosugi I, Iwashita T, Shinmura K, Misawa K, Hariyama T, Kawasaki H. Diagnosis of Ion-Exchange Resin Depositions in Paraffin Sections Using Corrective Light and Electron Microscopy-NanoSuit Method. Diagnostics. 2021; 11(7):1193. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11071193

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ooishi, Mako, Satoshi Yamada, Toshiya Itoh, Shiori Meguro, Haruna Yagi, Isao Kosugi, Toshihide Iwashita, Kazuya Shinmura, Kiyoshi Misawa, Takahiko Hariyama, and Hideya Kawasaki. 2021. "Diagnosis of Ion-Exchange Resin Depositions in Paraffin Sections Using Corrective Light and Electron Microscopy-NanoSuit Method" Diagnostics 11, no. 7: 1193. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11071193

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