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Water 2017, 9(9), 657;

Assessing Risks at a Former Chemical Facility, Nanjing City, China: An Early Test of the New Remediation Guidelines for Waste Sites in China

Key Laboratory of Surficial Geochemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
DuPont Corporate Remediation Group, DuPont Company, Wilmington, DE 19805, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Water Management: Saving, Treatment and Reuse)
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China has recognized the need to investigate and remediate former manufacturing facilities and return the land they occupy to a new, productive use. As a result, national guidelines entitled “Technical guidelines for Risk assessment of contaminated sites” were issued in 2014 to guide site investigations, risk assessments, and remedial actions to reduce or mitigate potential exposures of people and ecological receptors to contaminants. This study was pursued to gain experience with the new guidelines at a small, former chemical manufacturing facility in Nanjing City, China. A series of investigations were undertaken to determine the locations and levels of contaminants in soils and groundwater, develop a conceptual site model, and prepare an initial estimate of risks to humans and ecological receptors. Groundwater results revealed several contaminants that were greater than the Dutch Intervention Levels, yet, surprisingly, few, if any, contaminants were found in multiple samplings of soil. Despite the limited investigations of soil and groundwater, data were sufficient to prepare initial risk evaluations for humans, both for systemic toxins and potentially carcinogenic chemicals. The site and nearby area contain industrial facilities and residential neighborhoods; hence, there were too few ecological receptors to warrant an ecological risk assessment. The new guidelines for site investigations and risk assessments proved sufficient for the purposes of this small site; however, more complex sites may require much greater levels of effort and more detailed guidelines for investigations, risk assessments, and remedial actions. View Full-Text
Keywords: guidelines; contaminated sites; risk assessment; China guidelines; contaminated sites; risk assessment; China

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Zhang, Y.; Ye, S.; Wu, J.; Stahl, R.G., Jr. Assessing Risks at a Former Chemical Facility, Nanjing City, China: An Early Test of the New Remediation Guidelines for Waste Sites in China. Water 2017, 9, 657.

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