This study investigates precipitation, snow, groundwater, glaciers and frozen soil in different landscape zones using isotopic and hydrogeochemical tracers. The aim of this study is to identify temporal and spatial variations, as well as hydrological processes in the alpine cold region. The results show that there was no significant difference in water chemical characteristics of various waterbodies, and no obvious temporal variation, but exhibited spatial variation. In the wet season, various waterbodies are enriched in oxygen δ18
O and deuterium δ
D due to a temperature effect. Precipitation and the temperature decrease during the dry season, which cannot easily be affected by secondary evaporation. The d
-excess (deuterium excess) of various waterbodies was greater than 10‰. There are no altitude effects during wet and dry seasons because the recharged water resources are different in the wet and dry seasons. It is influenced by the freezing-thawing process of glacier snow and frozen soil. The river water is recharged by thawed frozen soil water and precipitation in the wet season, but glacier snow meltwater with negative δ18
O and δ
D is less (14–18%). In the dry season, glacier snow meltwater and groundwater are the dominant source of the river water, and thawed frozen soil water is less (10–15%).
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