Next Article in Journal
Non-Metropolitan Drinking Water Suppliers’ Response to the Diagnostic Tool for Non-Technical Compliance in Limpopo, South Africa
Previous Article in Journal
The Impact of Demographic Factors, Beliefs, and Social Influences on Residential Water Consumption and Implications for Non-Price Policies in Urban India
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2017, 9(11), 852;

Evaluation of Sustainable Use of Water Resources in Beijing Based on Rough Set and Fuzzy Theory

Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Safety and Clean Utilization, North China Electric Power University, Renewable Energy Institute, Beijing 102206, China
Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Process, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing100101,China
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [756 KB, uploaded 7 November 2017]   |  


Water resources are not only the essence of human life, but also an important prerequisite which ensures the economic and social development of a country or city. Due to chronically global overexploitation, water crises have started to emerge. China, for example, is experiencing acute water scarcity. Even its capital, Beijing, faces enormous challenges in the sustainable use of water resources. Combining the compound system of social, economic, and ecological environments with the current situation in Beijing, this study established an evaluation index system. To determine the weight, the rough set theory was adopted in the index layer, fuzzy theory was employed in the rule layer and set pair analysis method, and attribute recognition theory was used as evaluation methods. In order to verify the accuracy of the results, the weights of indices were taken into the evaluation methods mentioned above after being calculated by using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and entropy weight method, respectively. The matter-element model was used to evaluate the system and the Spearman correlation coefficient method aimed to compare all the results of the evaluation. The results indicated that water use efficiency and water management have been increasingly improved in Beijing on a yearly basis. Additionally, the results of the Spearman correlation coefficient method showed that the method of weight determination based on rough set and fuzzy theory is feasible in the evaluation of sustainable use of water resources. View Full-Text
Keywords: rough set; fuzzy theory; weights; sustainable use of water resources rough set; fuzzy theory; weights; sustainable use of water resources

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Men, B.; Liu, H.; Tian, W.; Liu, H. Evaluation of Sustainable Use of Water Resources in Beijing Based on Rough Set and Fuzzy Theory. Water 2017, 9, 852.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top