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Spatial Assessment of Groundwater Quality Monitoring Wells Using Indicator Kriging and Risk Mapping, Amol-Babol Plain, Iran
Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran 15875-4413, Iran
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2013; in revised form: 17 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 31 December 2013
Abstract: The main aim of monitoring wells is to assess the conditions of groundwater quality in the aquifer system. An inappropriate distribution of sampling wells could produce insufficient or redundant data concerning groundwater quality. An optimal selection of representative monitoring well locations can be obtained by considering the natural and anthropogenic potential of pollution sources; the hydrogeological setting; and assessment of any existing data regarding monitoring networks. The main objective of this paper was to develop a new approach to identifying areas with a high risk of nitrate pollution for the Amol-Babol Plain, Iran. The indicator kriging method was applied to identify regions with a high probability of nitrate contamination using data obtained from 147 monitoring wells. The US-EPA DRASTIC method was then used in a GIS environment to assess groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination, and combined with data concerning the distribution of sources to produce a risk map. In the study area, around 3% of the total area has a strong probability of exceeding the nitrate threshold and a high–moderate risk of pollution, but is not covered adequately by sampling wells. However, the number of monitoring wells could be reduced in most parts of the study area to minimize redundant data and the cost of monitoring.
Keywords: monitoring well; indicator kriging; probability map; vulnerability map; risk assessment; Amol-Babol Plain
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Sheikhy Narany, T.; Ramli, M.F.; Aris, A.Z.; Sulaiman, W.N.A.; Fakharian, K. Spatial Assessment of Groundwater Quality Monitoring Wells Using Indicator Kriging and Risk Mapping, Amol-Babol Plain, Iran. Water 2014, 6, 68-85.
Sheikhy Narany T, Ramli MF, Aris AZ, Sulaiman WNA, Fakharian K. Spatial Assessment of Groundwater Quality Monitoring Wells Using Indicator Kriging and Risk Mapping, Amol-Babol Plain, Iran. Water. 2014; 6(1):68-85.
Sheikhy Narany, Tahoora; Ramli, Mohammad F.; Aris, Ahmad Z.; Sulaiman, Wan N.A.; Fakharian, Kazem. 2014. "Spatial Assessment of Groundwater Quality Monitoring Wells Using Indicator Kriging and Risk Mapping, Amol-Babol Plain, Iran." Water 6, no. 1: 68-85.