Next Article in Journal
The Fourth Phase of Water: Beyond Solid, Liquid, and Vapor. By Gerald H. Pollack, Ebner & Sons Publishers, 2013; 357 Pages. Price US $29.95, ISBN 978-0-9626895-4-3
Previous Article in Journal
Air Masses Origin and Isotopic Tracers: A Study Case of the Oceanic and Mediterranean Rainfall Southwest of France
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2013, 5(2), 629-637;

The Life Cycle CO2 (LCCO2) Evaluation of Retrofits for Water-Saving Fittings

ESG Promotion Department, TOTO LTD., 2-1-1, Nakashima, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 802-8601, Japan
Received: 27 February 2013 / Revised: 17 May 2013 / Accepted: 20 May 2013 / Published: 31 May 2013
Full-Text   |   PDF [629 KB, uploaded 9 June 2015]   |  


As part of measures being taken against global warming, the reduction of CO2 emissions by retrofitting for water-saving fittings in homes is spreading throughout the world. However, although this retrofitting reduces the environmental impact at the use stage, it generates new impacts at the production and disposal stages. In addition, there has been little research that discusses the reduction in environmental impact obtained by retrofitting from the viewpoint of the overall life cycle of such fittings. In this paper, an evaluation of the environmental impact of retrofitting in terms of the entire life cycle was carried out for toilet bowls and showerheads. The findings show that even for a toilet bowl that generates a large environmental load at the production stage, there is no overall increase in the environmental impact by retrofitting for the average usable life of 20 years. View Full-Text
Keywords: global warming; CO2 reduction; water; saving-water; retrofit global warming; CO2 reduction; water; saving-water; retrofit

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Shimizu, Y. The Life Cycle CO2 (LCCO2) Evaluation of Retrofits for Water-Saving Fittings. Water 2013, 5, 629-637.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top