Calculation of Head Losses and Analysis of Influencing Factors of Crossing Water-Conveyance Structures of Main Canal of Middle Route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Area
2.2. Data Collection and Checking
2.3. Method for Calculating Head Losses of Crossing Water-Conveyance Structures
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Calculation Results of Head Losses of Crossing Water-Conveyance Structures
3.2. Analysis of Factors Influencing the Head Loss Increase
3.3. Suggestions for Countermeasures
- Regularly clean up the sediments in the structures, remove algae and freshwater mussels attached to the surface, and apply roughness-reducing materials if necessary.
- Modify the shapes of the inlet and outlet structures of the crossing water-conveyance structure with undesirable flow regimes.
- Dredge and expand the drainage structures on the left bank with a high flood risk, raise the levees at the inlet and outlet, and set up grit chambers upstream.
- Explore the option of adding water-conveyance channels in the case that the existing crossing water-conveyance structures cannot be modified.
- Add automatic monitoring sections and advanced monitoring equipment to improve the intelligent sensing and precise control ability of the Main Canal.
- Increase the frequency of daily inspections during periods of water conveyance with a high flow rate and periods when rainstorms, floods, and geological disasters likely occur.
- Check the margin of safety of the structures under long-term water conveyance with a high flow rate and take structural strengthening measures if necessary.
- Check the aeration conditions of the water conveyance with a high flow rate in the underdrains and increase the number of aeration facilities if necessary.
- Take engineering and management measures to reduce the roughness of the canal and mitigate the impact on its flow capacity due to damming at the outlet of the structure.
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Structure||Monitoring Point Location||Stake Number||Water Gauge Reading (m)||Water Level Difference between Inlet and Outlet (m)||Measured Flow Rate (m3/s)||Gate Control Status|
|Aqueduct of Yanling River||Upstream of inlet transition section||48 + 740||144.81||0.15||322.54||Fully opened|
|Downstream of outlet transition section||49 + 161||144.64|
|Inverted siphon of Xizhao River||Upstream of inlet transition section||69 + 523||143.69||0.10||327.07||Fully opened|
|Downstream of outlet transition section||69 + 874||143.58|
|No.||Type||Model or Specification||Main Performance Indicators||Measurements|
|1||Radar water level gauge||HZ-RLS-26L-50||Range: 0.25–15 m; Range hole: 0.25 m; Range accuracy: ±2 mm||Water level|
|2||ADCP||SonTek RiverSurveyor||Velocity measurement range: ±10 m/s; Resolution: 0.001 m/s; Accuracy: ±1%||Discharge|
|3||Remotely controlled unmanned ship system||Nortek USV||Scope of application: rivers or channels with a velocity of 0–5 m/s||/|
|4||Electronic level||Leica SPRINTER 100/100M||Elevation measurement accuracy: 2.0 mm; Distance measurement accuracy: standard deviation = 10 mm when distance <10 m and standard deviation = 1‰ of the measured value when distance ≥ 10 m; Distance measurement range: 2–80 m||Elevation|
|5||Rangefinder||Leica D5||Measuring range: 0.05–200 m; Measuring accuracy: ±1.0 mm||Distance|
|No.||Design Maximum Water-Conveyance Flow Rate (m3·s−1)||Distributed Head (m)||Head Loss (m)||Residual Head (m)||Monitored Maximum Flow Rate (m3·s−1)|
|Canal Section||Taocha Gate–Chuanhuang Gate||Chuanhuang Gate–Zhanghe Gate||Zhanghe Gate–Beijumahe Gate||Taocha Gate–Beijumahe Gate|
|Stake number||0 + 000–483 + 471||483 + 471–731 + 366||731 + 366–1197 + 669||0 + 000–1197 + 669|
|Residual head as percentage of distributed head||4%||13%||12%||9%|
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Cui, W.; Chen, W.; Mu, X.; Xiong, Q.; Lu, M. Calculation of Head Losses and Analysis of Influencing Factors of Crossing Water-Conveyance Structures of Main Canal of Middle Route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project. Water 2023, 15, 871. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050871
Cui W, Chen W, Mu X, Xiong Q, Lu M. Calculation of Head Losses and Analysis of Influencing Factors of Crossing Water-Conveyance Structures of Main Canal of Middle Route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project. Water. 2023; 15(5):871. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050871Chicago/Turabian Style
Cui, Wei, Wenxue Chen, Xiangpeng Mu, Qilin Xiong, and Minglong Lu. 2023. "Calculation of Head Losses and Analysis of Influencing Factors of Crossing Water-Conveyance Structures of Main Canal of Middle Route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project" Water 15, no. 5: 871. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050871