# Effect of Tide Level Change on Typhoon Waves in the Taiwan Strait and Its Adjacent Waters

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Numerical Model Description

#### 2.1. Wind Model

#### 2.2. Wave Model

#### 2.3. Tide Model

_{w}is the water pressure; C is the Chezy coefficient; P

_{a}is the standard atmospheric pressure; f is the wind friction coefficient; V, Vx, and Vy are the components of wind speed in the x and y directions, respectively; E is the eddy viscosity coefficient.

## 3. Study Objects and Areas

## 4. Model Setup and Validation

#### 4.1. Model Setup

#### 4.1.1. Initial and Boundary Conditions

#### 4.1.2. Computational Time Step

#### 4.1.3. Tide Level Operation

#### 4.2. Model Validation

#### 4.2.1. Wind Speed Validation

#### 4.2.2. Tide Level Validation

#### 4.2.3. Significant Wave Height Validation

## 5. Influence of High and Low Tide Levels on Typhoon Waves

#### 5.1. Translating Tide Level

#### 5.2. Effect of Tide Level on Wave Height

## 6. Conclusions

- (1)
- The simulation results of Typhoon Mekkhala were verified using measured data of significant wave height and wind speed at verification points during the calculation time. The results indicated that the simulated significant wave height and the measured values followed the same change process. The peak time of the wave was also consistent with the time when the typhoon had the greatest impact on the verification point. These findings suggest that the SWAN model is more accurate when coupling tide-level data compared to uncoupled tide-level data.
- (2)
- The simulation results of Typhoon Maria were optimized by adjusting the tidal level to better match the actual situation. Based on this, the tidal level during the typhoon’s approach was shifted on the time axis. When the high tide phase coincided, the simulated significant wave height at the verification point was higher compared to that without the influence of the tidal level. As a result, the wave height increased, posing a greater danger to shore buildings. Conversely, when the typhoon landed during low tide, the significant wave heights at both verification points decreased by 0.37 m and 0.07 m, respectively.
- (3)
- The significant wave height of Typhoon Maria during a high-tide landing differed significantly from that during a low-tide landing. At the Beishuang buoy, the maximum significant wave height difference was 0.71 m (20%), while at the No. 4 buoy, the difference was 0.29 m (3%). The tidal level height had a significant influence on the typhoon’s landing, and the tidal level height at the time of the typhoon’s landing was positively correlated with the significant wave height of the typhoon wave.
- (4)
- The significant wave heights of the verification buoys, Beishuang and No. 4, show significant differences under the influence of different tidal heights. This is because the water depth at the No. 4 buoy is 63 m, which is 2.5 times deeper than that of the northern double buoys (18 m). Therefore, the reference value of significant wave height before the tide level is taken into account is larger for No. 4, amplifying the influence of tide level height on the Beishuang buoy.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 3.**Tide level simulation for Typhoon Mekkhala. (

**a**) 2020-08-10 T00:00, (

**b**) 2020-08-10T06:00, (

**c**) 2020-08-10 T12:00, (

**d**) 2020-08-10 T18:00.

**Figure 5.**Comparison of calculated and measured wind speeds at each verification point of Typhoon Mekkhala. (

**a**) Gulei buoy. (

**b**) No. 1 buoy. (

**c**) No. 2 buoy. (

**d**) No. 2 Strait buoy.

**Figure 6.**Comparison of simulated and measured tide levels at each verification point of Typhoon Mekkhala. (

**a**) Sansha buoy. (

**b**) Pingtan buoy. (

**c**) Xiamen buoy. (

**d**) Jiangjunao buoy.

**Figure 7.**Comparison of calculated and measured wave heights at each verification point of Typhoon Mekkhala. (

**a**) Gulei buoy. (

**b**) No. 1 buoy. (

**c**) No. 2 buoy. (

**d**) No. 2 Strait buoy.

**Figure 8.**Comparison of tide levels before and after shifting tide levels. (

**a**) Beishuang buoy. (

**b**) No. 4 buoy.

**Figure 9.**Tidal height at the verification points of Typhoon Maria. (

**a**) Under the influence of high tide level. (

**b**) Under the influence of low tide (Translational tide level).

**Figure 10.**The significant wave height at the verification points before and after shifting the tide level. (

**a**) Beishuang (High tide level). (

**b**) No. 4 (High tide level). (

**c**) Beishuang (Low tide level). (

**d**) No. 4 (Low tide level).

**Figure 11.**Comparison of significant wave heights at the verification point after shifting the tide level (low level). (

**a**) Beishuang buoy. (

**b**) No. 4 buoy.

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Chen, C.; Peng, C.; Xiao, H.; Wei, M.; Wang, T.
Effect of Tide Level Change on Typhoon Waves in the Taiwan Strait and Its Adjacent Waters. *Water* **2023**, *15*, 1807.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15101807

**AMA Style**

Chen C, Peng C, Xiao H, Wei M, Wang T.
Effect of Tide Level Change on Typhoon Waves in the Taiwan Strait and Its Adjacent Waters. *Water*. 2023; 15(10):1807.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15101807

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Chen, Cheng, Chen Peng, Hong Xiao, Minjian Wei, and Tingyu Wang.
2023. "Effect of Tide Level Change on Typhoon Waves in the Taiwan Strait and Its Adjacent Waters" *Water* 15, no. 10: 1807.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15101807