# Application of Tesla Valve’s Obstruction Characteristics to Reverse Fluid in Fish Migration

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## Abstract

**:**

^{2}/s

^{2}, which could be friendly for fish upstream. In addition, the results show that pressure-related problems could not seem to have an excessive impact on fish migration, such as causing damage. Overall, the results further studied the feasibility of using the Tesla valve as a fish passage pipeline.

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Physical Model

#### 2.2. Numerical Calculation

_{x}and F

_{y}to simulate the situation of the fish pipeline under different slopes $\theta $ (the slope of the initial comparison test was 0%, 5%, and 10%, respectively). The boundary condition was set as the velocity inlet (the velocity of the initial comparison test was 0.3 m/s, 0.6 m/s, and 0.9 m/s, respectively). The SIMPLE pressure–velocity coupling algorithm was adopted. The second-order upwind style discretization was adopted. Standard wall parameters were selected for each wall. The number of iteration steps was set at 2000 and the convergence accuracy was 10

^{−3}.

#### 2.3. Numerical Calculation Verification

#### 2.4. Target Fish

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Model Selection Analysis

#### 3.2. Analysis of Turbulence Characteristics

^{3}/s according to the inlet proportion, and the corresponding setting of 1.5% was also adopted for the slope [42].

^{2}/s

^{2}, and the turbulent kinetic energy value of the pond chamber fishway was only 0.07 m

^{2}/s

^{2}[27,52]. According to the obtained turbulence kinetic energy cloud in Figure 12, it can be seen that the fish passage pipeline can better control the turbulence kinetic energy in the global range. From the changing trend of TKE, the TKE in the downstream was higher than in the upstream, which may make it easier for fish to migrate in continuous energy consumption. The same analysis can also be obtained from the velocity analysis mentioned above. At the same time, the TKE value in most areas of the fish passage pipeline was minimal, which was found to be suitable for fish swimming continuously [27]. It was accessible from the figure’s distribution of TKE that the more significant value of TKE mainly occurred in the pipeline circuit and jet generation area. The phenomenon may be mainly due to the large flow velocity in the loop area and the significant velocity fluctuation near the vital migration position, so the corresponding TKE value was also high. According to the ideal migration route, the fish in this area passed through a short time or did not pass through, so it was more friendly for fish migration.

^{2}/s

^{3}. The turbulent energy dissipation rate in the loop area was generally more prominent than that in the main channel, with a sudden increase. The main reason may be the sudden decrease in turbulent scale [54].

## 4. Conclusions

^{2}/s

^{2}, and the high value of turbulent kinetic energy generally appeared in the valve circuit. However, in most ideal migration areas, the turbulent kinetic energy was low, which was suitable for fish upstream.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 1.**Schematic diagram of size and structure of two Tesla valves (mm) ((

**a**) T45-R, (

**b**) GMF, and the width of entrance is 100 mm).

**Figure 2.**Schematic diagram of two fish passing pipeline models based on Tesla valve ((

**a**) fish passing pipe designed based on T45-R, (

**b**) fish passing pipe designed based on GMF; the vital positions for testing have been marked with numbers in the figure).

**Figure 6.**Velocity at vital locations of two Tesla pipelines under different slopes ((

**a**). slope = 0%, (

**b**). slope = 5%, (

**c**). slope = 10%. Black lines A, C, and E are for GMF Tesla valve, and the initial speeds are 0.3 m/s, 0.6 m/s, and 0.9 m/s, respectively; red lines B, D, and F are for T45-R Tesla valve, with initial speeds of 0.3 m/s, 0.6 m/s, and 0.9 m/s, respectively).

**Figure 7.**Schematic diagram of fish ascending in the fish passage pipeline (the vital positions for testing have been marked with numbers in the figure).

Research Results | Numerical Results | Relative Error (%) | |
---|---|---|---|

RPDR | 11.61 | 10.96 | 5.60% |

APDR | 35.83 | 33.54 | 6.39% |

Working Condition | 0% | 5% | 10% |
---|---|---|---|

0.3 m/s | 13.74 | 10.87 | 11.33 |

0.6 m/s | 7.67 | 9.56 | 7.76 |

0.9 m/s | 8.15 | 8.61 | 2.28 |

Grass Carp | Body Length (m) | Burst Swimming Speed (m/s) |
---|---|---|

Sub-adults fish | 0.5124 ± 0.0324 | 2.899 ± 0.457 |

Young fish | 0.1793 ± 0.0127 | 2.359 ± 0.434 |

Juvenile fish | 0.0847 ± 0.0073 | 1.449 ± 0.424 |

NO. | Species (Scientific Name) | Body Length (m) | Burst Swimming Speed (m/s) |
---|---|---|---|

1 | Mylopharyngodon piceus | 0.265 ± 0.145 | 1.22 ± 0.19 |

2 | Hypophthalmichthys molitrix | 0.905 ± 0.385 | 0.96 ± 0.34 |

3 | Aristichthys nobilis | 0.185 ± 0.035 | 1.10 ± 0.12 |

4 | Schizothorax oconnori | 0.267 ± 0.036 | 1.53 ± 0.24 |

5 | Schizothorax macropogon | 0.253 ± 0.034 | 1.22 ± 0.15 |

6 | Racoma waltoni | 0.305 ± 0.047 | 1.37 ± 0.17 |

7 | Oxygymnocypris stewarti | 0.216 ± 0.016 | 1.38 ± 0.20 |

8 | Ptychobarbus dipogon | 0.253 ± 0.050 | 1.10 ± 0.18 |

9 | Schizopygopsis malacanthus | 0.109 ± 0.023 | 0.92 ± 0.08 |

10 | Gymnodiptychus dybowskii | 0.182 ± 0.023 | 1.06 ± 0.18 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Zeng, G.; Xu, M.; Mou, J.; Hua, C.; Fan, C. Application of Tesla Valve’s Obstruction Characteristics to Reverse Fluid in Fish Migration. *Water* **2023**, *15*, 40.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010040

**AMA Style**

Zeng G, Xu M, Mou J, Hua C, Fan C. Application of Tesla Valve’s Obstruction Characteristics to Reverse Fluid in Fish Migration. *Water*. 2023; 15(1):40.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010040

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Zeng, Guorui, Maosen Xu, Jiegang Mou, Chenchen Hua, and Chuanhao Fan. 2023. "Application of Tesla Valve’s Obstruction Characteristics to Reverse Fluid in Fish Migration" *Water* 15, no. 1: 40.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010040