Impact of the Boreholes on the Surrounding Ground
2.1. Model and Method
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Influence of Boreholes on Surrounding Ground under Unloaded Condition
3.1.1. In Case of Single Boreholes Left Vacant
3.1.2. In Case of Double Boreholes Left Vacant
3.1.3. Comparison of Cases of Vacant and Filled Double Boreholes
3.2. Influence of Loading on Ground Surrounding Boreholes
3.2.1. In Case of Single Boreholes Left Vacant
3.2.2. In Case of Two Boreholes Left Vacant and Loading at Different Position
- The amount of ground displacement was seen to depend upon the stiffness of the ground. The maximum initial displacement was observed for stiff ground in all cases, except the case of double boreholes, in which the final stabilized displacement value was slightly higher or equal to that of the stiff ground.
- Soft ground was found to be relatively more unstable than stiff and medium grounds, as the location of the maximum deformation of this ground was different than that of the other grounds.
- The increase in the amount of displacement was observed to be larger for the case of an increased number of boreholes than that due to the loading.
- The surrounding ground remained settled if the boreholes were left vacant, but this settlement was prevented if the holes were immediately filled with appropriate filling material. Moreover, the pore water pressure recovery was higher for the filled condition.
- The presence of external loading not only contributed to an increase in the amount of displacement, but it also affected the location of the maximum displacement. It was observed that the inclination tended to occur in the direction of loading, indicating susceptibility to external loading.
- The influence on the horizontal range and maximum displacement vector of the surrounding ground was lower in location 2. In other words, borehole-related work conducted with machinery located in the existing pile alignment resulted in less influence on the ground.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|wn||N-Value||γunsat (kN/m3)||γsat (kN/m3)||ν||λ||κ||M||K0||OCR||e0||kp (m/d)||Ground |
|30%||8.88||16||17||0.277||0.107||0.012||1.555||0.383||1||0.817||2.23 × 10−2||Stiff|
|40%||6.99||15||16||0.276||0.164||0.018||1.562||0.380||1||1.089||4.34 × 10−3||Medium|
|80%||2.68||13||14||0.274||0.389||0.04||1.569||0.378||1||2.177||8.47 × 105||Soft|
|ν (-)||Φ (°)||C|
|Filler material||14||15||100||136,223||0.48||26||50||8.64 × 10−5||-|
|Bearing layer||20||21||-||1.4 × 105||0.3||-||0||0.864||50|
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Shakya, S.; Nakao, K.; Kuwahara, S.; Inazumi, S. Impact of the Boreholes on the Surrounding Ground. Water 2023, 15, 188. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010188
Shakya S, Nakao K, Kuwahara S, Inazumi S. Impact of the Boreholes on the Surrounding Ground. Water. 2023; 15(1):188. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010188Chicago/Turabian Style
Shakya, Sudip, Koki Nakao, Shuichi Kuwahara, and Shinya Inazumi. 2023. "Impact of the Boreholes on the Surrounding Ground" Water 15, no. 1: 188. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010188