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Article

Spatio-Temporal Heterogeneity of Climate Warming in the Chinese Tianshan Mountainous Region

by 1,2,3,*, 1,2,3, 4, 5 and 6
1
Faculty of Geomatics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070, China
2
National-Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Technologies and Applications for National Geographic State Monitoring, Lanzhou 730070, China
3
Gansu Provincial Engineering Laboratory for National Geographic State Monitoring, Lanzhou 730070, China
4
Key Laboratory of Regional Climate-Environment in Temperate East Asia, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
5
State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China
6
Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B9, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pankaj Kumar
Water 2022, 14(2), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020199
Received: 12 November 2021 / Revised: 30 December 2021 / Accepted: 7 January 2022 / Published: 11 January 2022
The Chinese Tianshan mountainous region (CTMR) is a typical alpine region with high topographic heterogeneity, characterized by a large altitude span, complex topography, and diverse landscapes. A significant increase in air temperature had occurred in the CTMR during the last five decades. However, the detailed, comprehensive, and systematical characteristics of climate warming, such as its temporal and spatial heterogeneity, remain unclear. In this study, the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of climate warming across the CTMR had been comprehensively analyzed based on the 10-day air temperature data gathered during 1961–2020 from 26 meteorological stations. The results revealed local cooling in the context of general warming in the CTMR. The amplitude of variation (AV) varied from −0.57 to 3.64 °C, with the average value of 1.19 °C during the last six decades. The lapse rates of the elevation-dependent warming that existed annually, and in spring, summer, and autumn are −0.5 °C/100 m, −0.5 °C/100 m, −0.7 °C/100 m, and −0.4 °C/100 m, respectively. The warming in the CTMR is characteristic of high temporal heterogeneity, as represented by the amplified warming at 10-d scale for more than half a year, and the values of AV were higher than 1.09 °C of the global warming during 2011–2020 (GWV2011–2020). Meanwhile, the amplitudes of warming differed greatly on a seasonal scale, with the rates in spring, autumn, and winter higher than that in summer. The large spatial heterogeneity of climate warming also occurred across the CTMR. The warming pole existed in the warm part, the Turpan-Hami basin (below 1000 m asl) where the air temperature itself was high. That is, the warm places were warmer across the CTMR. The cooling pole was also found in the Kuqa region (about 1000 m asl). This study could greatly improve the understanding of the spatio-temporal dynamics, patterns, and regional heterogeneity of climate warming across the CTMR and even northwest China. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate warming; alpine region; temporal and spatial heterogeneity; amplitude; Chinese Tianshan mountainous region climate warming; alpine region; temporal and spatial heterogeneity; amplitude; Chinese Tianshan mountainous region
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, X.; Zhang, B.; Ren, R.; Li, L.; Simonovic, S.P. Spatio-Temporal Heterogeneity of Climate Warming in the Chinese Tianshan Mountainous Region. Water 2022, 14, 199. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020199

AMA Style

Li X, Zhang B, Ren R, Li L, Simonovic SP. Spatio-Temporal Heterogeneity of Climate Warming in the Chinese Tianshan Mountainous Region. Water. 2022; 14(2):199. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020199

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Xuemei, Bo Zhang, Rui Ren, Lanhai Li, and Slobodan P. Simonovic. 2022. "Spatio-Temporal Heterogeneity of Climate Warming in the Chinese Tianshan Mountainous Region" Water 14, no. 2: 199. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020199

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