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Article

Evaluation of Business Models for Fecal Sludge Emptying and Transport in Informal Settlements of Kampala, Uganda

1
Department of Water Supply, Sanitation and Environmental Engineering, IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft, The Netherlands
2
International Water Association, 1 Clove Crescent, East India, London E14 2BA, UK
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Kampala Capital City Authority (KCCA), Plot 1-3 Apollo Kaggwa Road, Kampala P.O. Box 7010, Uganda
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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Makerere University, Sir Apollo Kaggwa Rd, Kampala P.O. Box 7062, Uganda
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Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Van der Maasweg 9, 2629 HZ Delft, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Hongyu Ren
Water 2022, 14(18), 2914; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182914
Received: 7 August 2022 / Revised: 12 September 2022 / Accepted: 14 September 2022 / Published: 17 September 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Citywide Inclusive Sanitation (CWIS))
Various business models for fecal sludge emptying and transport have been developed to address challenges and their advantages have been documented; however, their evaluation has not been investigated. This study developed an evaluation framework, which was tested in informal settlements in Kampala for sustainable business models of fecal sludge emptying and transport. Through key informant interviews and stakeholder consultations, service delivery challenges from informal settlements in Kampala were identified and included in the framework, which were: high cost of emptying services, spillages, access to facilities, high operational costs and social stigma. The evaluation framework adopted six service criteria: Financial, Institutional, Environmental, Technological, Social and Scalability; these were further defined by fifteen service sub-criteria. The criteria were tested separately on eight business models—for mechanized (cesspool) and semi-mechanized (gulper) technologies. The key output of the evaluation framework (business model scorecard) revealed that two models (scheduled desludging and call center) for cesspool technology and three models (mobile transfer stations, scheduled desludging and call center) for gulper technology have high potential for service improvement in informal settlements. Scheduled desludging and mobile transfer stations can effectively optimize emptying services and subsequently reduce emptying charges, whereas the call center is critical for bridging service delivery. View Full-Text
Keywords: fecal sludge; emptying and transport; business models; informal settlements; evaluation framework; Kampala city fecal sludge; emptying and transport; business models; informal settlements; evaluation framework; Kampala city
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MDPI and ACS Style

Singh, S.; Laker, F.; Bateganya, N.L.; Nkurunziza, A.G.; Semiyaga, S.; Brdjanovic, D. Evaluation of Business Models for Fecal Sludge Emptying and Transport in Informal Settlements of Kampala, Uganda. Water 2022, 14, 2914. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182914

AMA Style

Singh S, Laker F, Bateganya NL, Nkurunziza AG, Semiyaga S, Brdjanovic D. Evaluation of Business Models for Fecal Sludge Emptying and Transport in Informal Settlements of Kampala, Uganda. Water. 2022; 14(18):2914. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182914

Chicago/Turabian Style

Singh, Shirish, Florence Laker, Najib L. Bateganya, Allan G. Nkurunziza, Swaib Semiyaga, and Damir Brdjanovic. 2022. "Evaluation of Business Models for Fecal Sludge Emptying and Transport in Informal Settlements of Kampala, Uganda" Water 14, no. 18: 2914. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182914

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