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Article

Is the Sea the Enemy? Occupation and Anthropogenic Impacts at Costa da Caparica (Portugal)

1
MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, NOVA School of Science and Technology, NOVA University Lisbon, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
2
Department of Social Sciences and Management, Aberta University, 4200-055 Porto, Portugal
3
CITCEM—Transdisciplinary Research Centre Culture, Space and Memory, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Porto University, 4150-564 Porto, Portugal
4
CIMA—Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Algarve, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Emanuela Molinaroli and Giovanni De Falco
Water 2022, 14(18), 2886; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182886
Received: 15 June 2022 / Revised: 22 August 2022 / Accepted: 9 September 2022 / Published: 15 September 2022
This article explores the development of human occupation and the anthropogenic impacts at Costa da Caparica, a Portuguese coastal town that faces several challenges concerning coastal erosion processes. A historical long-term analysis was made, mainly through medieval and modern writing sources, crossing such textual data with geology, geography, and other related scientific disciplines studies regarding the coastal erosion problems of the study area. Therefore, from the Middle Ages to the present, human actions concerning this area were examined. The sea was first seen as an income, due to tourism, and later seen as a danger. It is argued that human behaviors were the main cause of historical problems and also the present vulnerabilities and risks associated with this coastal stretch of the Portuguese littoral. We must search the past for answers to understand present problems and think about the future. This is the main purpose of this paper: to contribute to a better knowledge concerning coastal sustainability based on the results of past human actions, as a way to avoid such mistakes in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: Portuguese littoral; historical analysis; human settlement; coastal risk; coastal vulnerability; coastal erosion; coastal management Portuguese littoral; historical analysis; human settlement; coastal risk; coastal vulnerability; coastal erosion; coastal management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pereira, O.N.A.; Bastos, M.R.; Ferreira, J.C.; Dias, J.A. Is the Sea the Enemy? Occupation and Anthropogenic Impacts at Costa da Caparica (Portugal). Water 2022, 14, 2886. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182886

AMA Style

Pereira ONA, Bastos MR, Ferreira JC, Dias JA. Is the Sea the Enemy? Occupation and Anthropogenic Impacts at Costa da Caparica (Portugal). Water. 2022; 14(18):2886. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182886

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pereira, Olegário Nelson Azevedo, Maria Rosário Bastos, José Carlos Ferreira, and João Alveirinho Dias. 2022. "Is the Sea the Enemy? Occupation and Anthropogenic Impacts at Costa da Caparica (Portugal)" Water 14, no. 18: 2886. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182886

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