# Study of an Ejector Water Intake and Treatment Plant with a Pressure-Vacuum Hydrocyclone

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

^{3}of treated water.

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

^{3}was designed to determine the flow of water through the sand hole of the hydrocyclone.

_{1}, at the outlet of the hydrocyclone P

_{2}, at the discharge line of the pump Pp, and downstream of the ejector diffuser Pe) were set using pressure gauge 11 and vacuum gauge 12.

_{p}= 10 mm, the mixing chamber d

_{mc}= 24 mm, and the diffuser d

_{d}= 50 mm.

_{0}+ Q

_{1}, where Q

_{0}is the suction flow rate of water with impurities, and Q1 is water flow through the working nozzle of the ejector from the pump.

_{c}is the diameter of the cylindrical part of the hydrocyclone; d

_{1}-, d

_{2}-,and d

_{3}—diameters of the inlet, drain, and lower branch pipes; T, T

_{1}, and T

_{2}—heights of the main elements of the hydrocyclone (general, cylindrical, and conical parts); α

_{к}—taper angle.

_{e}(according to the readings of the pressure gauge behind the diffuser) and the pump pressure

_{Hp}—from the pressure gauge installed in front of the working nozzle. The emission factor (${\mathsf{\alpha}}_{\mathrm{e}}$) was given by the relation:

^{3}of condensed mass ${\mathrm{N}}_{\mathrm{u}}$.

_{3}/d

_{2}= 0.3–0.5.

^{3}/s; ${Q}_{1}$—water flow through the inlet pipe, m

^{3}/s;

^{3}/s;

^{3}; ${\mathrm{T}}_{\mathrm{h}}$—soil productivity, m

^{3}/s; ${\mathrm{f}}_{3}$—working area of the thickener sand hole, m

^{2}.

^{3}of the condensed mass ${\mathrm{N}}_{\mathrm{u}}$, are equal to:

_{1}= H

_{e}—head at the hydrocyclone inlet, equal to the head of the ejector, m.

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Redistribution of Pressure in the Considered Sections of the Hydrocyclone

_{2}> P

_{e}takes place, then the separation of the two-phase liquid in it occurs at the greatest rarefaction of the field. An increase in pressure at the inlet to the hydrocyclone P

_{1}due to the back pressure of the ejector leads to a decrease in the rarefaction and, at a certain value, its device switches to the pressure mode of operation. At the moment of transition to the pressure-vacuum mode of operation in the near-wall (peripheral) zone of the cylindrical part of the hydrocyclone, an overpressure field arises, and a vacuum is maintained at the pump intake. With an increase in the backwater at the inlet Pe, the field propagates towards the cone and, at a certain value, covers the area of the sand hole, resulting in the free removal of solid particles into the atmosphere. The regime of fluid movement in a hydrocyclone under pressure-vacuum conditions, as shown from the above, takes place when the double inequality is observed: 0 ˂ P

_{1}˂ P

_{2}. This happens when the relation P

_{1}/P

_{2}belongs to the interval [0,1]. In this case, P

_{1}> Patm, P

_{2}˂ P

_{atm}, where P

_{atm}is the atmospheric pressure, P

_{a}. The given conditions for the transition from one regime to another are clearly seen from the profiles obtained during the experiments (Figure 2).

_{1}= 0–5 kPa, a vacuum field is completely established inside the hydrocyclone apparatus, which has a minimum value in the near-wall zone. A more significant deepening of the vacuum in the area of the drain pipe provides an intensive flow of liquid into the suction pipe of the pump. The pressure profiles of the flow in the pressure-vacuum mode of operation of the hydrocyclone present a somewhat different picture. In this case, when P

_{1}= 10–15 kPa, the vacuum field is observed only in the central part of the hydrocyclone, and the peripheral zone in height is in overpressure. In this case, the generalized curve for all can be described by the following empirical relationship (Figure 2). With a decrease in the flow rotation radius, the value of excess pressure decreases, and at the point of intersection with the line of the radial section it is equal to zero, i.e., the absolute value of liquid pressures is equal to the atmospheric pressure P

_{a}= P

_{atm}. In both cases, in the center of the hydrocyclone flow along the apparatus, a space is formed that is not filled with liquid (an air column). In this case, the generalized curve for all sections can be described by the following empirical relationship (Figure 2):

#### 3.2. Redistribution of Water Flow in the Hydrocyclone between Discharge Openings

_{1}= P

_{e}= 55–60 кPa, the relative thickening index decreases to Ko = 2.8–3.0 and thus the water losses increase by 10–15%. This shows the inefficiency of the unit in the full pressure mode.

_{1}= 40–50 кPa), although the specific load on the sand hole does not exceed the allowable value (q

_{3}=1.9 t/h cm

^{2}), adopted for the size of the sand hole (d

_{3}= 20–25 mm) (Figure 5).

_{p}= 4.48–4.87 L/s) and the water purification degree with mechanical impurities (E

_{e}= 93–96%). The water consistency passing through the drain pipe does not exceed K

_{2}= 0.008, and no particles with diameters larger than 0.04–0.05 mm pass through, which helps to protect the pump impeller from abrasive wear.

_{3}= 1.5–1.6 t/h per 1 cm

^{2}) by adjusting the outlet cross section using a throttling device, mainly automatic, in order to maintain the indicated rational mode. Reduction in the unit productivity from the ground up to Q

_{3}= 0 occurs at hydrocyclone overloading by the thickened mass, as the drain hole fully overlapping does not allow the realization of free removal to the dump. There is a violation in the redistribution of the solid phase and a decrease in water purification systems by 30–40%. The redistributive nature is also affected by a change in the ratio of the sand and drain holes’ sizes. Reducing this ratio increases the proportion of granular grains carried away toward the base pump suction.

_{3}= 2.13–2.21 t/m

^{3}, and water losses were equal to Δw = 3.84% at relative thickening of slurry in the range.

#### 3.3. Hydrocyclone–Ejector Technology Efficiency Parameters Establishment and Economical Mode of Joint Operation

^{3}of thickened mass is observed when the relative head increases to he = 0.4 or more, if the specific energy consumption in the working zone (he = 0.250–0.310) varies within acceptable limits. This is due to compaction of the processed sand mass in the hydrocyclone conical part and overloading of the hydrocyclone unit due to operating mode violations

_{e}= 0.233–0.245), which was obtained when using an ejector to lift water from a well.

## 4. Conclusions

_{1}= 10–15 kPa, the vacuum field is observed only in the central part of the hydrocyclone, and the peripheral zone in height is in overpressure.

_{3}= 1.5–1.6 t/h per 1 cm

^{2}) must be ensured to maintain the required mode by adjusting the cross section of the outlet with an automatic control valve. When overloading the conical part of the hydrocyclone with sand, the redistribution of the solid phase is violated, and the water purification is reduced by 30–40%. The change in the ratio of the dimensions of the discharge nozzles also affects the nature of the redistribution. It has been established that the relative pressure of the ejector must be taken as equal to its subcritical value when working together with a hydrocyclone.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 1.**Scheme of the design (

**a**) and the stand for the study of the ejector–hydrocyclone installation (

**b**). 1—water collector; 2—centrifugal pump; 3—hydrocyclone; 4—ejector; 5—filter; 6—telescopic stand; 7—water intake tank; 8—measuring tank; 9—additional branch; 10—mini ejector; 11—manometers; 12—vacuum gauges.

Diameters, mm | T_{1}, mm | T_{2}, mm | T, mm | α_{к} | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Dc | d_{1} | d_{2} | d_{3} | ||||

240 | 50 | 50 | 20 | 120 | 345 | 465 | 15–30° |

Inlet Pressure P_{1}, kPa | Hydrocyclone Elements | Fluid Flow, l/s | Pulp Consistency | Sand Composition, % (Less than 0.05 mm) |
---|---|---|---|---|

65 | Inlet nozzle | 6.103 | 0.164 | $\frac{100}{0.45}$ |

Drain nozzle (overflow) | 4.877 | 0.008 | $\frac{5.1}{100}$ | |

Sand hole (underflow) | 1.226 | 0.501 | $\frac{94.9}{0.45}$ | |

100 | Inlet nozzle | 5.818 | 0.157 | $\frac{100}{0.35}$ |

Drain nozzle (overflow) | 4.484 | 0.0065 | $\frac{6.3}{100}$ | |

Sand hole (underflow) | 1.334 | 0.745 | $\frac{93.7}{0.35}$ |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Kassymbekov, Z.; Kuldeev, Y.; Kassymbekov, G.
Study of an Ejector Water Intake and Treatment Plant with a Pressure-Vacuum Hydrocyclone. *Water* **2022**, *14*, 2855.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182855

**AMA Style**

Kassymbekov Z, Kuldeev Y, Kassymbekov G.
Study of an Ejector Water Intake and Treatment Plant with a Pressure-Vacuum Hydrocyclone. *Water*. 2022; 14(18):2855.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182855

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Kassymbekov, Zhuzbay, Yerzhan Kuldeev, and Galymzhan Kassymbekov.
2022. "Study of an Ejector Water Intake and Treatment Plant with a Pressure-Vacuum Hydrocyclone" *Water* 14, no. 18: 2855.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182855