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Article

Salinity and Temperature Variations near the Freshwater-Saltwater Interface in Coastal Aquifers Induced by Ocean Tides and Changes in Recharge

1
Departamento de Geodinámica, Universidad de Granada, Avenida Fuente Nueva s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain
2
Instituto del Agua, Universidad de Granada, Calle Ramón y Cajal 4, Edificio Fray Luis, 18003 Granada, Spain
3
CN-Instituto Geológico y Minero de España (IGME-CSIC), Unidad de Granada, Urb. Alcázar del Genil, 4 Edificio Zulema, Bajo, 18006 Granada, Spain
4
Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Sem Sælands vei 1, 0371 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Roko Andricevic
Water 2022, 14(18), 2807; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182807
Received: 13 July 2022 / Revised: 26 August 2022 / Accepted: 7 September 2022 / Published: 9 September 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling Contaminant Transport and Natural Groundwater Quality)
The temperature distribution of shallow sectors of coastal aquifers are highly influenced by the atmospheric temperature and recharge. However, geothermal heat or vertical fluxes due to the presence of the saline wedge have more influence at deeper locations. In this study, using numerical models that account for variable density, periodic oscillations of temperature have been detected, and their origin has been attributed to the influence exerted by recharge and tides. The combined analysis of field data and numerical models showed that the alternation of dry and wet periods modifies heat distribution in deep zones (>100 m) of the aquifer. Oscillations with diurnal and semidiurnal frequencies have been detected for groundwater temperature, but they show differences in terms of amplitudes and delay with electrical conductivity (EC). The main driver of the temperature oscillations is the forward and backward displacement of the freshwater–saltwater interface, and the associated thermal plume generated by the upward flow from the aquifer basement. These oscillations are amplified at the interfaces between layers with different hydraulic conductivity, where thermal contours are affected by refraction. View Full-Text
Keywords: geothermal gradient; saltwater intrusion; temperature fluctuations; tidal influence; groundwater recharge; climate change geothermal gradient; saltwater intrusion; temperature fluctuations; tidal influence; groundwater recharge; climate change
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MDPI and ACS Style

Blanco-Coronas, A.M.; Calvache, M.L.; López-Chicano, M.; Martín-Montañés, C.; Jiménez-Sánchez, J.; Duque, C. Salinity and Temperature Variations near the Freshwater-Saltwater Interface in Coastal Aquifers Induced by Ocean Tides and Changes in Recharge. Water 2022, 14, 2807. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182807

AMA Style

Blanco-Coronas AM, Calvache ML, López-Chicano M, Martín-Montañés C, Jiménez-Sánchez J, Duque C. Salinity and Temperature Variations near the Freshwater-Saltwater Interface in Coastal Aquifers Induced by Ocean Tides and Changes in Recharge. Water. 2022; 14(18):2807. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182807

Chicago/Turabian Style

Blanco-Coronas, Angela M., Maria L. Calvache, Manuel López-Chicano, Crisanto Martín-Montañés, Jorge Jiménez-Sánchez, and Carlos Duque. 2022. "Salinity and Temperature Variations near the Freshwater-Saltwater Interface in Coastal Aquifers Induced by Ocean Tides and Changes in Recharge" Water 14, no. 18: 2807. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182807

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