Research Progress on Integrated Treatment Technologies of Rural Domestic Sewage: A Review
2. Common Treatment Technologies for Rural Sewage
3. Integrated Rural Sewage Treatment Process
3.1. A/O Process
3.2. Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) Process
3.3. Biological Contact Oxidation Process
3.4. SBR Process
3.5. Economic Indicators of the Integrated Rural Sewage Treatment Process
4. Application of Integrated Rural Sewage Treatment Projects in Different Countries
4.1. Integrated Treatment of Purification Tank in Japan
4.2. Biological Contact Oxidation Integrated Treatment in Britain
4.3. Local Integrated Processing System in New Zealand
5. Evaluation Method of Integrated Rural Sewage Treatment Technology
5.1. Single-Factor Evaluation
5.2. Multifactor Weighted Evaluation
5.3. Expert Scoring Evaluation
5.4. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation
- Evaluation object set V is established.
- Evaluation factor set U is established.
- Each factor in the U set is weighted to establish the weight distribution vector A.
- The fuzzy judgment matrix of each factor is obtained through the fuzzy evaluation of each single factor. Then, the fuzzy comprehensive judgment matrix R is obtained through the fuzzy judgment matrix of each single factor.
- The fuzzy comprehensive judgment matrix R and the weight distribution vector a are combined to obtain the final comprehensive evaluation result B.
- The comprehensive evaluation result B is converted into the comprehensive score value N.
- The final score result of each object is evaluated according to the comprehensive score N value.
5.5. Bayesian Model Evaluation
- The monitoring indicators of the evaluation object are determined.
- A triangular fuzzy number of the monitoring index is established.
- The a priori probability P1 and conditional probability P2 are calculated according to the idea of layering and the concept of geometric distance.
- The weight of WQI is determined, and the score value of sewage treatment equipment is calculated according to the weight value.
- The final score result of each object is evaluated according to the comprehensive score value.
5.6. Gray Relational Evaluation
- The indexes of effluent quality measurement of integrated equipment are listed as the reference series, whereas the grade of water quality standard is listed as the comparison series.
- The comparison sequence Xi(k) and the reference sequence Yi(k) are normalized. Normalizing and making the original data dimensionless are necessary to obtain X′i(k) and Y′i(k) and ensure that all factors have the same order and equivalence.
- The difference sequence is searched.
- The correlation coefficient is searched.
- The correlation degree is searched.
- The correlation degree is sorted according to the value, and the largest one is searched in each row in the correlation degree matrix to determine the effluent quality grade of the integrated equipment.
5.7. Artificial Neural Network Evaluation
- The evaluation index of the integrated processing equipment is selected, and the data of the monitoring and assessment index are normalized.
- The processed standard training samples are propagated forward from the input layer.
- The error information fed back by the computer network is inversely transmitted from the output layer to each layer unit. The weight and threshold are continuously improved according to the feedback data to minimize the mean square deviation of the output value.
- The trained computer is used to evaluate independently the integrated processing system and obtain the evaluation results.
5.8. Other Comprehensive Technology Evaluation
6. Operation and Maintenance Management Mode of Integrated Processing System
6.1. Operation Mode of Rural Sewage Treatment Facilities in America
6.2. Operation Mode of Rural Sewage Treatment Facilities in Japan
6.3. Operation Mode of Rural Sewage Treatment Facilities in New Zealand
6.4. Operation Mode of Rural Sewage Treatment Facilities in China
- Process modules should be optimized to save energy and reduce consumption, enhance resource-based research and development, and reduce investment costs. Building a drainage pipe network is unrealistic for areas with scattered settlements far from the urban center. It has the advantages of a fast treatment rate, high efficiency, space saving, and flexible handling. The integrated sewage treatment equipment shows its high application space. However, compared with the traditional ecological sewage treatment technology, the integrated sewage treatment equipment has a relatively high investment and operation costs. Moreover, a certain pressure is present on the economic strength and environmental awareness of most farmers in underdeveloped or developing countries. A high effluent standard is indeed ideal, but it inevitably increases the process modules and energy consumption of integrated equipment. Therefore, the integrated equipment needs technological innovation. Reducing the production and operation cost of the equipment, optimizing the equipment process combination, reducing the number of modules, reducing the energy consumption of modules, and exploring and developing process modules or path methods that can be used as resources are important development directions in the future to ensure water quality.
- An intelligent man–machine exchange remote management mode should be created. In the actual operation of integrated rural sewage treatment equipment, the core components of the equipment must be checked and repaired. The process parameters must be adjusted to ensure the stable operation of the equipment and the quality of the effluent. Regular on-site operation and maintenance of the equipment greatly increase the cost of transportation and human resources. If the Internet of Things technology is adopted to improve the automation and intelligence of integrated equipment, such as automatic optimization and adjustment of process parameters, fault early warning, and recovery, then the operation of equipment can be realized through the man–machine exchange function. The operation and maintenance cost of equipment can be greatly reduced as long as the instructions can be completed through mobile phone operation. Creating an automatic and intelligent technology management mode is an important aspect of reducing the cost of rural integrated treatment.
- Standards and specifications for relevant products and environmental monitoring should be established. At present, the integrated sewage treatment lacks the standardization of technical products, resulting in the poor quality of equipment products, poor application effect, and even secondary pollution to the environment. Therefore, the standardization of process technology through relevant standards and specifications must be urgently strengthened to improve the effective maintenance efficiency of equipment and the pollution control effect of equipment. Standardized environmental monitoring can comprehensively and truly reflect the performance and quality of integrated sewage treatment equipment. It can also effectively standardize the market, control products, and provide an important reference basis for users to select appropriate technical equipment. Therefore, standards and specifications for integrated product production, process technology, and environmental monitoring must be urgently issued.
- A comprehensive risk identification and evaluation system and a hierarchical management system should be established. Rural sewage treatment systems are gradually promoted in most developing countries. However, the embarrassing situation of “able to build but unable to operate” exists. The quality of a large part of sewage treatment equipment cannot be guaranteed because it does not have a timely professional evaluation and management system. Lack of effective supervision mechanisms, weak basic support capacity of operation and maintenance management, and lack of effective evaluation and incentive mechanisms result in insufficient market development power. At present, most of the evaluation methods for sewage treatment are mainly aimed at the treatment water quality. However, the practical application process has many other factors, such as water quality, technology type, environmental conditions, and social influence. Moreover, the research is not deep enough. Therefore, the establishment of comprehensive risk identification and evaluation system methods, such as economic benefits, social benefits, and ecological benefits, and a hierarchical management system must be strengthened to promote the efficient application of integrated sewage treatment technology.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Technology Type||Technical Characteristics||Technical Disadvantages||Suitable Conditions||Res.|
|Constructed wetland technology||Convenient operation and maintenance, simple management, low investment and operation cost||Large floor area, difficult operation in winter, easily causes secondary pollution.||Areas with low population density, less pollution emission, less fund investment, and lack of technical talents||[17,31,32]|
|Soil infiltrationt technology||Low operating costs, good effluent effect, strong impact load resistance||The removal capacity is limited by soil adsorption capacity||Areas with idle land and appropriate temperature||[18,23,25,26,27,28,29,30]|
|Stabilization pond technology||Low investment and operation cost, simple maintenance, convenient operation||Longer hydraulic retention time, low treatment efficiency, large floor area||Suitable for areas with abandoned rivers, reservoirs, and ponds; small villages; and small domestic sewage discharge|||
|Concentrated integrated processing technology||Strong resistance to hydraulic load and pollution load, high treatment efficiency, and strong treatment capacity||Technical and economic limits of the degree to which WWTPs can be cared for in rural areas||Areas of concentrated living and with high effluent quality requirements||[19,20]|
|Small-sized integrated processing technology||Small volume, high efficiency, stable effluent quality, the back end can realize the reuse of water resources||Relatively high construction and operation cost, low volume load rate, poor regional adaptability||Single or multiple households in scattered areas|||
|Project||A/O Craft||MBR Craft||SBR Craft||Biological Contact Oxidation||Constructed Wetlands||Land Purification System||Stability Pond|
|Effluent quality||GB 18918-2002|
Class I B emission standard
Class I A emission standard
|GB 18918-2002 |
Class I B emission standard
|GB 18918-2002 |
Class I A emission standard
|GB 18918-2002 Secondary emission standard||GB 18918-2002 Secondary emission standard||GB 18918-2002 Secondary emission standard|
|Adaptability of water volume||Good||General||Better||Better||General||Inferior||Good|
|Operation management||Simple process operation and convenient operation and management||Simple process operation and convenient operation and management||Simple process operation and convenient operation and management||Simple process operation and convenient operation and management||Simple process operation and convenient operation and management||Simple process operation and convenient operation and management||Simple process operation and convenient operation and management|
|Maintenance work||Less process equipment and easy maintenance||Complex process equipment||Less process equipment and easy maintenance||Less process equipment and easy maintenance||Less process equipment and easy maintenance||The process is easily blocked||Less process equipment and easy maintenance|
|Main land occupation m2/m3·d||0.83||1.33||1.00||0.92||4–10||10–40||50–200|
|Total investment yuan/m3||2200–3200||2800–3800||2500–3500||2000–3000||150–400||100–400||1000–1200|
|Operation cost yuan/t||0.35–0.45||0.45–0.65||0.40–0.55||0.30–0.40||<0.2|
|Labor quota person||1–2|
|Difficulty of construction||Easy||General|
|Construction cycle month||1–2||0.5–1|
|Use Population/Person||Anaerobic Filter/m3||Contact Oxidation Pool/m3||Sedimentation Tank/m3||Sterilization Chamber|
|≤5||1.5||1.0||0.3||0.2 × n × 1/96|
|6–10||1.5 + (n − 5) × 0.4||1.0 + (n − 5) × 0.2||0.3 + (n − 5) × 0.08|
|11–50||3.5 + (n − 10) × 0.2||2.0 + (n − 10) × 0.16||0.7 + (n − 10) × 0.04|
|Activated sludge: contact stability||30–20,000||No raw sludge is formed, and the secondary sludge is stable with low output, no smell, and strong compactness; it can reach the effluent of 30:20||It needs continuous energy and maintenance to ensure ventilation and pump operation. Power failure will seriously affect the treatment effect of the system, and excessive water volume will lead to the loss of activated sludge.|
|Activated sludge: delayed aeration||17–30,000||No raw sludge is produced, and the secondary sludge is stable with low output and no smell; it can reach the effluent of 30:20||High energy consumption, ventilation, sludge removal, and regular inspection are required during maintenance.|
|Extended biofiltration||15–450||No raw sludge is formed that can treat intermittent effluent; it can reach the effluent of 30:20||Odor will be generated, and the final sludge is difficult to dehydrate with high energy consumption. Effective operation requires continuous energy supply and regular inspection and maintenance.|
|Rotary biological contactor||5–40,000||The energy consumption and water loss are low; it can reach the effluent of 30:20||It is necessary to remove sludge and maintain the engine regularly. Overload operation is strictly prohibited. Power failure will reduce the removal efficiency.|
|Effective volume setting/m3||≥1.5||≥2.0||≥2.5|
|Pollutant||Removal Approach||Removal Effect|
|BOD||Soil adsorption and biological oxidation||90–95%|
|Nitrogen||Volatilization, denitrification, and crop absorption||70–80%|
|Phosphorus||Soil adsorption fixation and plant absorption||85–95%|
|Organic compound||Volatilization, photolysis, and biodegradation||75–85%|
|Pathogen||Adsorption, drying, radiation, and biological phagocytosis of soil system||99%|
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Chen, P.; Zhao, W.; Chen, D.; Huang, Z.; Zhang, C.; Zheng, X. Research Progress on Integrated Treatment Technologies of Rural Domestic Sewage: A Review. Water 2022, 14, 2439. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152439
Chen P, Zhao W, Chen D, Huang Z, Zhang C, Zheng X. Research Progress on Integrated Treatment Technologies of Rural Domestic Sewage: A Review. Water. 2022; 14(15):2439. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152439Chicago/Turabian Style
Chen, Peizhen, Wenjie Zhao, Dongkai Chen, Zhiping Huang, Chunxue Zhang, and Xiangqun Zheng. 2022. "Research Progress on Integrated Treatment Technologies of Rural Domestic Sewage: A Review" Water 14, no. 15: 2439. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152439