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Article

TDEM Soundings as a Tool to Determine Seasonal Variations of Groundwater Salinity (Villafáfila Lakes, Spain)

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Dpto. Geología, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Ávila, Universidad de Salamanca, Av. Hornos Caleros, n° 50, 05003 Ávila, Spain
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Dpto. Ingeniería Cartográfica y del Terreno, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Ávila, Universidad de Salamanca, Av. Hornos Caleros, n° 50, 05003 Ávila, Spain
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Dpto. Geología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, Pza. de la Merced S/N, 37008 Salamanca, Spain
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Técnicas Geofíscas, S.L. Paseo de San Roque 21, 3º1, 05003 Ávila, Spain
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Confederación Hidrográfica del Duero, Avda. de Italia, 1, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ryan Bailey
Water 2022, 14(15), 2402; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152402
Received: 6 July 2022 / Revised: 27 July 2022 / Accepted: 29 July 2022 / Published: 2 August 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrogeology)
Interaction between groundwaters with different salinities and lakes show seasonal variations driven by changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration. In the vicinity of Villafáfila lakes, local fresh and brackish regional groundwaters feeds the lakes, forming a brine in the lake sediments aquitard. Two TDEM surveys (summer 2019 and winter 2020) were carried out. Five TDEM soundings were acquired at the same location for each survey, forming a profile from the hills to the lake-shore. Simultaneously to the TDEM surveys, electric conductivity of lake water and groundwater was measured. The resistivity boundary between the local fresh (10–35 Ohm/m) and regional brackish groundwater (2–5 Ohm/m) is well marked at 600 m above sea level (masl) below the hills, and at 650 masl below the lowlands surrounding the lakes. During the summer, fresh-brackish groundwater interphase rises due to evaporative pumping occurring in the lowlands. This increases groundwater salinity close to the terrain surface favoring precipitation of halite efflorescences. Annual record of EC in a piezometer confirms the summer ascendant of the brine contained in the lake aquitard. TDEM sounding is fast and simple technique to monitor seasonal variations in fresh-brackish groundwater interphase and to detect possible salinization of consumption wells and environmental changes. View Full-Text
Keywords: electromagnetism; electric conductivity; duero; groundwater; wetland; saline electromagnetism; electric conductivity; duero; groundwater; wetland; saline
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huerta, P.; Carrasco-García, P.; Armenteros, I.; Recio, C.; Carrasco-García, J.; Rodríguez-Jiménez, E. TDEM Soundings as a Tool to Determine Seasonal Variations of Groundwater Salinity (Villafáfila Lakes, Spain). Water 2022, 14, 2402. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152402

AMA Style

Huerta P, Carrasco-García P, Armenteros I, Recio C, Carrasco-García J, Rodríguez-Jiménez E. TDEM Soundings as a Tool to Determine Seasonal Variations of Groundwater Salinity (Villafáfila Lakes, Spain). Water. 2022; 14(15):2402. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152402

Chicago/Turabian Style

Huerta, Pedro, Pedro Carrasco-García, Ildefonso Armenteros, Clemente Recio, Javier Carrasco-García, and Esther Rodríguez-Jiménez. 2022. "TDEM Soundings as a Tool to Determine Seasonal Variations of Groundwater Salinity (Villafáfila Lakes, Spain)" Water 14, no. 15: 2402. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152402

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