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Article

Feasibility Assessment of the Application of Groundwater Remediation Techniques in Rural Areas: A Case Study of Rural Areas in the Soutpansberg Region, Limpopo Province, South Africa

1
Department of Water and Sanitation, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
2
Centre for Environmental Management, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa
3
Department of Earth Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Guangji Hu, Jianbing Li, Rehan Sadiq, Zoe Li, Haroon R. Mian and Gyan Chhipi Shrestha
Water 2022, 14(15), 2365; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152365
Received: 18 July 2022 / Revised: 27 July 2022 / Accepted: 28 July 2022 / Published: 30 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Security and Public Health in Small Remote Communities)
Groundwater contribution towards human health and livelihood depends on the contaminants level in groundwater. Many people in rural communities are being exposed to waterborne diseases resulting from drinking untreated contaminated groundwater. This study argues that the lack of implementation of available groundwater remediation methods and associated high costs are exposing rural communities to health risks. This study assessed 22 years of groundwater quality data from 12 boreholes and 2 springs to understand the contaminants level in the Soutpansberg region. A feasibility assessment of the application and design of a sustainable groundwater remediation technique was carried out based on individual- and community-based groundwater remediation types. The assessment considered groundwater management, cost and risk of theft and damage to infrastructure model for rural settings. This study determined that groundwater was not suitable for drinking purposes in some parts due to high concentration levels of NO3 and F. The feasibility assessment indicated that community-based groundwater remediation schemes are more sustainable in rural areas when compared to individual household remediation. In this study, it is recommended that groundwater remediation plans must be included in any proposed water supply or drought intervention project in rural communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: contaminants; groundwater quality; rural areas; remediation; human health contaminants; groundwater quality; rural areas; remediation; human health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lalumbe, L.; Oberholster, P.J.; Kanyerere, T. Feasibility Assessment of the Application of Groundwater Remediation Techniques in Rural Areas: A Case Study of Rural Areas in the Soutpansberg Region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Water 2022, 14, 2365. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152365

AMA Style

Lalumbe L, Oberholster PJ, Kanyerere T. Feasibility Assessment of the Application of Groundwater Remediation Techniques in Rural Areas: A Case Study of Rural Areas in the Soutpansberg Region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Water. 2022; 14(15):2365. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152365

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lalumbe, Lindelani, Paul Johan Oberholster, and Thokozani Kanyerere. 2022. "Feasibility Assessment of the Application of Groundwater Remediation Techniques in Rural Areas: A Case Study of Rural Areas in the Soutpansberg Region, Limpopo Province, South Africa" Water 14, no. 15: 2365. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152365

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