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Article

Determinants of Spatial Variability of Ice Thickness in Lakes in High Mountains of the Temperate Zone—The Case of the Tatra Mountains

1
Institute of Social and Economic Geography and Spatial Management, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Silesia in Katowice, Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
2
Institute of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Silesia in Katowice, Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hung Tao Shen
Water 2022, 14(15), 2360; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152360
Received: 29 June 2022 / Revised: 24 July 2022 / Accepted: 27 July 2022 / Published: 30 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
Vertical and horizontal variation in the ice cover of mountain lakes in the temperate climate zone has not been thoroughly studied. The study concerned ice phenomena in four lakes located in the Tatra National Park in the Tatra Mountains (the Czarny Staw Gąsienicowy, Czarny Staw pod Rysami, Morskie Oko, and Smreczyński Staw). The research, which was conducted in the 2018/2019 winter season, included an analysis of variability in atmospheric conditions, an analysis of presence of ice phenomena on satellite images, field work (measurements of ice layer and of snow and slush layer thickness were conducted at a total of 151 sites), and statistical analyses. It was determined that negative air temperature was just one factor among those that determined the maximum thickness of the ice forming on lakes in high mountains. It was found that in addition to ambient thermal conditions, a major factor affecting the magnitude of variation in lake ice thickness was the thickness of the snow overlying the ice and its spatial variability. Thicker ice cover tended to form in areas where a thick layer of snow was deposited. The decisive factor that contributed to a significant variation in ice thickness between lakes was the uneven accretion of snow ice from above. The maximum ice thickness values modeled using Stefan’s formula were significantly underestimated (accounting for 38–61% of the ice thickness measured) relative to the highest ice thickness values found empirically at the end of the winter season. Study results fill a gap in our knowledge and methodology related to vertical and horizontal variation in the ice cover of mountain lakes; they also have significant applications, indicating the risk of winter use of water bodies with different ice cover structure, thickness, and extent. View Full-Text
Keywords: ice phenomena; ice cover; snow cover; cryology; mountain lakes; Tatra Mountains ice phenomena; ice cover; snow cover; cryology; mountain lakes; Tatra Mountains
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MDPI and ACS Style

Solarski, M.; Rzetala, M. Determinants of Spatial Variability of Ice Thickness in Lakes in High Mountains of the Temperate Zone—The Case of the Tatra Mountains. Water 2022, 14, 2360. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152360

AMA Style

Solarski M, Rzetala M. Determinants of Spatial Variability of Ice Thickness in Lakes in High Mountains of the Temperate Zone—The Case of the Tatra Mountains. Water. 2022; 14(15):2360. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152360

Chicago/Turabian Style

Solarski, Maksymilian, and Mariusz Rzetala. 2022. "Determinants of Spatial Variability of Ice Thickness in Lakes in High Mountains of the Temperate Zone—The Case of the Tatra Mountains" Water 14, no. 15: 2360. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152360

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