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Article

Discovery of a New Species of Daphnia (Crustacea: Cladocera) from the Arabian Peninsula Revealed a Southern Origin of a Common Northern Eurasian Species Group

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Department of Biology, College of Science, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi P.O. Box 15551, United Arab Emirates
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A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, 119071 Moscow, Russia
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Khalifa Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi P.O. Box 15551, United Arab Emirates
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I.D. Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters, 152742 Borok, Russia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jun Yang
Water 2022, 14(15), 2350; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152350
Received: 17 June 2022 / Revised: 16 July 2022 / Accepted: 27 July 2022 / Published: 29 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Species Richness and Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems 2.0)
The biodiversity distribution patterns and their formation history in continental waters are studied based on some model groups such as Daphnia O.F. Müller (Crustacea: Cladocera). Most publications on this genus concern the subgenus Daphnia (Daphnia) while representatives of the subgenus Daphnia (Ctenodaphnia), inhabiting mainly temporary waters, are poorly studied. We found a new species of the D. (C.) sinensis complex in the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula, and our discovery allows us to resolve some problems concerning the history of these daphniids in the northern hemisphere. A formal description, illustrations (including numerous SEM photos) and a differential diagnosis of D. (C.) arabica Neretina, Al Neyadi & Hamza sp. nov. are provided. Phylogeny of D. (C.) similis complex is reconstructed based on three mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S and COI); a haplotype network based on short 12S fragments is also constructed. A monophyletic D. (C.) sinensis within the D. (C.) similis complex includes three earlier-derived locally distributed members: D. (C.) similoides, D. (C.) inopinata and D. (C.) arabica sp. nov. Our data suggest an old (Late Mesozoic) Gondwanan origin of the D. (C.) sinensis group and its Caenozoic differentiation in North Africa and the Middle East. This region then became a center of subsequent dispersion of D. (C.) sinensis through the whole of Eurasia and Africa during the Miocene and subsequent epochs. Interestingly, our scheme of the D. sinensis group dispersion has a well-known analogue: it is comparable to that suggested for earlier human migration from Africa through the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East to the rest of Eurasia. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cladocera; biodiversity; phylogeography; evolution history; Gondwana; Caenozoic differentiation Cladocera; biodiversity; phylogeography; evolution history; Gondwana; Caenozoic differentiation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hamza, W.; Neretina, A.N.; Al Neyadi, S.E.S.; Amiri, K.M.A.; Karabanov, D.P.; Kotov, A.A. Discovery of a New Species of Daphnia (Crustacea: Cladocera) from the Arabian Peninsula Revealed a Southern Origin of a Common Northern Eurasian Species Group. Water 2022, 14, 2350. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152350

AMA Style

Hamza W, Neretina AN, Al Neyadi SES, Amiri KMA, Karabanov DP, Kotov AA. Discovery of a New Species of Daphnia (Crustacea: Cladocera) from the Arabian Peninsula Revealed a Southern Origin of a Common Northern Eurasian Species Group. Water. 2022; 14(15):2350. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152350

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hamza, Waleed, Anna N. Neretina, Shamma Eisa Salem Al Neyadi, Khaled M.A. Amiri, Dmitry P. Karabanov, and Alexey A. Kotov. 2022. "Discovery of a New Species of Daphnia (Crustacea: Cladocera) from the Arabian Peninsula Revealed a Southern Origin of a Common Northern Eurasian Species Group" Water 14, no. 15: 2350. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152350

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